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Conjunctional compounds

Frisian has a pattern of complex conjunctions, in which the second member is dat that. Examples are meidat with-that in that and sadat so-that so that. Most first members are prepositions.


In the realm of complex conjunctions, we can discern a certain pattern with dat that as second member. The comprehensive dictionary WFT (Veen 1984-2011) mentions the following combinations:

Table 1
first constituent second constituent compound
by by dat that bydat by the time
ear before dat that eardat before (temporal)
fan of dat that fandat since
foar for dat that foardat before
hoe how dat that hoedat how
mei with dat that meidat in that
nei after dat that neidat after that
om to dat that omdat because
sa so dat that sadat so that
troch through dat that trochdat in that

Of these combinations, bydat, fandat and hoedat are rare. Next to these examples, there are some others which might be subsumed under the same pattern, although they are not written as one word. An example is sûnder dat without that without.

Most members have a preposition as first member, but there are also some adverbs, like hoe how, nammers moreover and sa so.

The stress in these combinations is more on the first than on the second member, although often the difference is not quite clear.

It stands to reason that most of the combinations will have been developed as univerbations, the preposition thereby selecting a subordinate clause, i.e. with the verb in final position.

Many formations have a variant in which the second member dat that is reduced and clitisised to 't. For this phenomenon, see the morphological topic on subordination.

  • Veen, Klaas F. van der et al1984-2011Wurdboek fan de Fryske taal - Woordenboek der Friese taalFryske Akademy
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