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Evidentiality in relation to perception and epistemicity

Evidential verbs assert that there is evidence for an assertion. Some examples of evidential copulas are given below:

Example 1

a. Dat heart goed
that hears well
That seems to be be good news
b. It hûs bylket moai
the house shapes beautiful
The house has a beautiful appearance
c. Dat liket mar bêst
that seems DcP best
It appears to be very good

The theme, expressing that which is perceived and evaluated, appears in the structural subject position. It is often a pronoun of general referral such as dat it. The outcome of the evaluation is expressed in an Adjective Phrase (AP). Such an AP is often obligatorily present with evidential copulas, that is, it cannot be omitted:

Example 2

a. *Dat heart
that hears
That seems to be be
b. *Dat liket mar
that seems DcP
It appears to be

Evidential copulas come in three types, depending on the type of verb which they are derived from: verbs of perception, verbs implying perception and epistemic verbs.

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More details can be found in Hoekstra (2009).


More details about evidentiality in relation to perception and epistemicity can be found by following the corresponding links:

  • Hoekstra, Jarich2009Dat liket mar bêst! Evidinsjaliteit yn it FryskUs Wurk: tydskrift foar Frisistyk581-16