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An example of subject incorporation?

There is one example of a collocation in which a subject appears to have been incorporated.


The verb kokealjen cow-calve consists of a noun that functions as the subject in the corresponding sentence:

Example 1

The ko keallet
the cow calves
The cow is calving

The Frisian Language Corpus (FLC) features a few examples involving a gerundial infinitive in an argument position:

Example 2

Ha jo ek forstân fan kokealjen?
have you DcP knowledge of cow.calving
Do you know anything about calving?

There are also examples in which the incorporated noun has the plural form kij cows, which is an irregular plural.

Example 3

Nei de gewoane praatsjes begûnen se te praten oer lânssaken en kij-kealjen
after the small talk began they to talk about national politics and cows-calve.GI
After the small talk, they began discussing national politics and cow calving

It seems possible to use the verb as a to-infinitive as well as a tensed verb:

Example 4

a. Wy sille te kokealjen
we shall to cow.calve
We are going to help the cow calve
b. Hja kokealje dêr hast alle dagen
they cow.calve there nearly all days
They help a cow calve there nearly every day

Other potential examples of subject incorporation can be found as well:

Example 5

a. Hy moat dêr bliuwe oant de maitiid him wekker ropt mei fûgelsjongen
he must there stay until the spring him awake calls with bird.singing
He must stay there until the spring awakens him with bird song
b. Op 'e jûn fol tyspeljende skaden, en as it kloktikjen begjint to libjen
in the evening full wavering shadows and as the clock.ticking begins to live
In the evening full of wavering shadows and when the clock's ticking comes alive

These incorporations cannot be used as to-infinitives or tensed verbs. They could be treated as compounds.