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Universal NP

Universal NPs, like negative NPs, may occur (together with the PP) to the left of the adjective, as in the example below:

Sy is sommer vir almal kwaad.
she be.PRS simply for everybody cross
She is simply cross with everybody.

However, placement may also be determined by emphasis, either fronting or end-stress, as illustrated by the following example:

salig onbewus van alles
blissfully unaware of everything

As in the case of negative NPs, universal NPs may be placed to either the left or the right of the adjective. Examples of both placements are:

Ek was so lank uitgesluit van alles.
I be.PRS so long barred from everything
I was barred from everything for so long.
wanneer jy met alles vertroud is
when you with everything familiar be.PRS
when you are familiar with everything

Linear order constraints are applicable, however, in the case of relative clauses (cf. the section on question-word NPs):

Jupiter, vir wie almal bang is
Jupiter, for whom everybody afraid be.PRS
Jupiter, of whom everybody is afraid
Iets het gebeur waarvan almal onbewus was.
something has happened where.of everybody unaware be.PRS
Something happened of which everybody was unaware.

Negativisation of universal NPs in Afrikaans (somewhat different from Dutch, /i/ which the negative R-pronoun nergens nowhere is used) is restricted to the utilisation of a negative indefinite pronoun, which is illustrated by the following sentences:

Hy is met alles tevrede.
he be.PRS with everything satisfied
He is satisfied with everything.
Hy is met niks tevrede nie.
he be.PRS with nothing satisfied PTCL.NEG
He is satisfied with nothing.
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