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5.3.4.The position of stranded prepositions

Example (106b) shows that stranded prepositions are normally left-adjacent to the verb(s) in clause-final position; if, for example, an adverbial phrase intervenes between the stranded preposition and the verb(s), the result is unacceptable. The same thing holds if the stranded preposition occurs in post-verbal position.

a. Jan heeft <op de brief> lang <op de brief > moeten wachten <op de brief >.
  Jan has    for the letter  long have.to wait
  'Jan had to wait for the letter a long time.'
b. Jan heeft er <*op> lang <op> moeten wachten <*op>.
  Jan has  there     for  long  have.to  wait
  'Jan had to wait for it a long time.'

      An example such as (107b) is only an apparent exception to this general rule, since it does not involve R-extraction but movement of a complete pronominal PP. This is clear from the fact illustrated in (107c) that daar over cannot be split by, e.g., an adverbial phrase; this example contrasts sharply with the example in (107d) that does involve R-extraction.

a. Jan heeft met Peter over dat probleem gesproken.
  Jan has  with Peter  about that problem  talked
  'Jan talked with Peter about that problem.'
b. Jan heeft [PP daar over] met Peter gesproken.
  Jan has  there about  with Peter  talked
c. * Jan heeft daari gisteren [PPti over] met Peter gesproken.
  Jan has  there  yesterday  about  with Peter  talked
d. Jan heeft daari gisteren met Peter [PPti over] gesproken.
  Jan has  there  yesterday  with Peter  about  talked

      There are, however, two true exceptions to the general rule that stranded prepositions are left-adjacent to the verb(s) in clause-final position: first, a predicatively used AP or PP may intervene between the stranded preposition and the verb(s); second, if more than one stranded preposition is present, at least one of them cannot be adjacent to the verb(s).

[+]  I.  Predicative complements

Predicative complements, which must generally also be left-adjacent to the verb(s) in clause-final position, can intervene between the stranded preposition and the verb. As is shown in (108), generally two orders are possible; either the predicate or the stranded preposition may be adjacent to the verb. Various factors may influence the grammaticality judgments; we refer the reader to Section A6.2.2, sub III for a discussion of some of the factors that force an adjectival predicate to precede the stranded preposition.

a. dat Jan het zakje met zijn zakmes open maakte.
  that  Jan the bag  with his pocketknife  open made
  'that Jan opened the bag with his pocketknife.'
a'. dat Jan er het zakje <mee> open <mee> maakte.
b. dat Jan de spijker met een hamer in de muur sloeg.
  that Jan  the nail  with a hammer  into the wall  hit
b'. dat Jan er de spijker <mee> in de muur <mee> sloeg.

Section, sub II, has argued that verbal particles also act as a kind of predicate. This correctly predicts that they can also intervene between the stranded preposition and the verbs in clause-final position. Unlike the predicative phrases in (108), however, the particle cannot precede the stranded preposition.

a. dat Jan Marie steeds tot diefstal aanzet.
  that  Jan Marie all.the.time  to theft  prt.-puts
  'that Jan is putting Marie up to theft all the time.'
a'. dat Jan Marie er steeds <toe> aan <*toe> zet.
b. dat zij graag voor zijn kundigheid instaat.
  that  she  gladly  for his competence  prt.-vouches
  'that she gladly vouches for his competence.'
b'. dat zij er graag <voor> in <*voor> staat.
[+]  II.  Multiple stranded prepositions

If more than one stranded preposition is present, the two compete for the position left-adjacent to the verb(s) in clause-final position. The order that is well-formed generally reflects the unmarked order of the two full prepositional phrases. This is easiest to see when one of the stranded prepositions heads a predicatively used PP, as in (110a); since the predicative phrase must be adjacent to the verb in clause-final position, the stranded preposition must also be adjacent to it. Observe that the R-word er in (110b) is interpreted as the pronominal R-word associated to both mee and in. This conflation of syntactic functions is more extensively discussed in Section 5.5.3.

a. dat Jan de schroef met een schroevendraaier in de muur draaide.
  that  Jan the screw  with a screwdriver  into the wall  turned
  'that Jan put the screw into the wall with a screwdriver.'
a'. * dat Jan de schroef in de muur met een schroevendraaier draaide.
b. dat Jan er de schroef meein draaide.
  that  Jan there  the screw  with into  turned
b'. * dat Jan er de schroef inmee draaide.
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