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Stress-shifting native suffixes

In contrast to stress-neutral suffixes and stress-bearing suffixes, stress-shifting native suffixes require the primary stress of the word to be located on the last stressable syllable preceding the suffix. As noted Schultink (1980), these suffixes exclusively form adjectives.

Example 1

a. -baarbar
      overdraagbaar [o.vər.ˈdraɣ.bar] transferable
b. -endənd
      omarmend [ɔm.ˈɑr.mənd] embracing
c. -igəɣ
      driehoekig [dri.ˈhu.kəx] triangular
d. -ischis
      afgodisch [ɑf.ˈxɔ.dis] idolatrous
e. -(e)lijkələk
      hartstochtelijk [hɑrts.ˈtɔx.tə.lək] passionate
      aanzíenlijk [an.ˈzin.lək] considerable
f. -ss
      goedlachs [xud.ˈlɑxs] fond of laughing
g. -zaamzam
      mededeelzaam [me.də.ˈdel.zam] talkative
[+]The special behaviour of -baar

The suffix -baar displays some particular characteristics, as it only shifts the main stress rightwards if the base word is a separable verb (Booij 1995). Consider the verb overdragen to transfer. (2a) shows that the base verb has main stress on over, (2b) indicates that it is separable, and (2c) demonstrates that the stress shifts to draag when the suffix -baar is added.

Example 2

a. Ik moet de taak overdragen.
I have to delegate the task.
b. Ik draag de taak over.
I delegate the task.
c. De taak is overdraagbaar.
The task is delegable.

Yet the stress shift does not happen in cases where the verb is non-separable, as in beïnvloeden to influence. (3a) indicates the stress pattern of the base verb, (3b) demonstrates the non-separability, while (3c) shows that there is no stress shift when -baar is added.

Example 3

a. Thomas wil Jap beïnvloeden.
Thomas wants to influence Jap.
b. Thomas beïnvloedt Jap.
Thomas influences Jap.
c. Jap is beïnvloedbaar.
Jap is influenceable.
[+]The special behavior of -loos

Note that in some cases adding the suffix -loos results in a rightward stress shift. While the suffix -loos is usually stress-neutral, it can induce a rightward stress shift when preceded by a schwa (4), or when followed by the suffix -heid(5).

Example 4

a. Dat heeft iets met hartstocht te maken.
This has got something to do with passion.
b. Zijn konijntje is hartstochtloos.
His rabbit is passionless.
Example 5

a. Frank is werkloos.
Frank is unemployed.
b. Werkloosheid is een groot probleem.
Unemployment is a big problem.
  • Booij, Geert1995The phonology of DutchOxfordOxford University Press
  • Schultink, Henk1980Boundaries, word classes and the accentuation of derived words in DutchZonneveld, Wim, Coetsem, Frans & Robinson, Orrin W. (eds.)Dutch StudiesThe HagueSpringer Netherlands205-222