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Historically, the suffix -er forms adjectives from verbs and as to its function, it can be compared with -ich. There are only a few derivations with the unproductive suffix -er. An example is dipper diligent. It can, however, be questioned if one can speak of derivation in these cases.

[+]General properties

Adjectives ending in -er [ər] are historically derived from verbs, but the base form can often not be recognized anymore. Examples are given in the table below:

Table 1
snipper charming
kwikker charming
skreder bony
skrander clever
bjuster curious
diger close
nuver miraculous
Note that skreder bony can also have the form skredich bony.

Adjectival derivations with -er from verbs are rare and unproductive. A comparative situation occurs with the suffix -el.

[+]Morphological potential

Derivations with -er from verbs can be input for some other suffixes. They can be nominalized by -ens or -heid. For instance in snipperens / snipperheid grace(fulness). Other adjectives can be formed with the help of -ich or -lik, for instance nuverich a little strange or nuverlik strange.

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This topic is based on Hoekstra (1998:133). Some more details about this suffix can be found in Sytstra and Hof (1925:92) and Tamminga (1963:238).

  • Hoekstra, Jarich1998Fryske wurdfoarmingLjouwertFryske Akademy
  • Sytstra, Onno H. & Hof, Jan J1925Nieuwe Friesche SpraakkunstLeeuwardenR. van der Velde
  • Tamminga, Douwe Annes1963Op 'e taelhelling. Losse trochsneden fan Frysk taellibben. IBoalsertA.J. Osinga