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Show all Linking elements

The modifying part of a compound is not always identical to its free counterpart. In many cases, linking elements, like -s-, -e- or -en-, are used to combine both parts.

[+]NN Compounds

In NN compounds, the linking element -s- represents a fossilised genitive case ending. (The ending -es in Jieresmesse ‘fair’ may be influenced by High German.) The same is true of -en- in e.g. Pastorenlound ‘vicar’s land’), where a fossilised (German or Frisian) genitive is visible. The linking elements -e- and –(e)n can – but do not always - refer to plural entities. The fact that modifier elements in compounds can be plural is clear not only from the existence of phrase-based compounds like Ooldewieuweknät ‘old wive’s knot’ (cf. []) but also from irregular plural forms in compoundings, such as Monljudeklodere (‘men’s clothes’).

The linking element -e- in Skietebukse ‘coward’ seems to have a pejorative load (cf. [] on affixoids). If skiete- would turn out to be deverbal instead of denominal, it is comparable to Gnurrepot (see below).

Lexical items can be represented by several compounding forms, often without a clear semantic difference, for instance Säärkemäid ‘church meadow’, Säärkdore ‘church door’ and Säärkenmuus ‘church mouse’, all referring to the noun Säärke ‘church’.

Table 1
-(e)s- Bäidensbäiden (‘grandchild’), Düwelswieuw (‘develish woman’), Daisljoacht (‘daylight’), Jieresmesse (‘fair’)
-e- Stenehopen (‘heap of bricks’)
-e- Skietebukse (‘coward’)
-(e)n- Pastorenlound(‘vicar’s land’)
-(e)n- Bukse(n)piepe (‘trouser leg’), Honentied (‘early morning’), Hone(n)treedsel (‘rooster’s step’)
-ens- Ietenstied (‘dinner time’), Bäädgungenstied (‘bedtime’), Apstoundstied (‘time to get up’)
-ers- Mälkerstied (‘milking time’)
deletion Säärkdore (‘church door’, cf. Säärke ‘church’), Äid(e)mjuks (‘compost’)
plural Fäite-ende (‘foot end of a bed’), Monljudeklodere (‘men’s clothing’), Wieuwljudehounde (‘women’s hands’)
-er- pl. Wuchternome (‘girl’s name’), Koolwerstaal (‘calf stable’)
diminut Kidjeboom, Kitjeboom (also: Kiddeboom) (‘elderberry’), Huundjetrab (‘ground-ivy’, lit. ‘dog-dim-trot’)
allom Köäntjedai (‘Twelfth Night’), Degesklodere, Boukenlound (‘buckwheat land’, from Bouk(w)ete, ‘buckwheat’), Skeepflaask (‘mutton’, from Skäip, ‘sheep’), Swinneblok (‘pig-trough’, from Swien, ‘pig’)
[+]VN compounds

The linking element -e- in Gnurrepot ‘grouser’ is typical for pejorative words (cf. skiete-). The word Stierwedai (‘anniversary of death’) may be influenced by High German Sterbetag.

The somewhat archaic linking element -el- is especially used in words ending in -dai ‘day’ and -tied ‘time’. Foarbiendeskoarte ‘apron’may be a historically corrupted form of *Foarbiendelskoarte. In the old word Wätseldai (‘working-day’), the element Wätsel- has lost its historical connection with the verb wierkje (‘to work’).

Table 2
-e- Gnur(re)pot(‘grouser’) Foarbiendeskoarte (‘apron’)
-el- Lopeldai(‘holiday’), Määrkeldai(‘special day’), Pisseltied (‘time to piss, pause’), Bräideljädden (‘knitting yarn’)
[+]PN compounds

In PN compounds, bäter- is used instead of bäte- ‘back’.

Table 3
-er- Bätersiede (‘rear end’)
[+]NA compounds

NA compounds often show allomorphy in the modifier part.

Adjectives like hundsgemeen ‘very mean’, pikkeswot ‘pitch black’ and skietewies ‘pedantic’ are informal, pejorative and/or elative (cf. [] on affixoids and [] on elative compounds).

The affixoid -maal ‘fond of’ often combines with allomorphic objects. The elements käärdele- and wuchter- must be interpretated as plurals (from Käärdele and Wuchtere respectively).

Table 4
-s- monsmaal (‘fond of men’), daisljucht (‘bright’), hundsgemeen (‘very mean’)
-e- pikkeswot (‘pitch black’), skietewies (‘pedantic’)
diminut. muuskenstil (‘noiseless, lit. little-mouse-quiet’), klits(ke)wäit (‘soaking wet’)
plural Käärdel(e)maal (‘fond of boys’), Wuchtermaal (‘fond of girls’)
[+]VA compounds
Table 5: VA compounds
-e- lukejällich (‘crooked, curved’),
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