• Dutch
  • Frisian
  • Saterfrisian
  • Afrikaans
Show all

Variable agreement is found with to-infinitives.


To-infinitives may be used attributively. With a modal interpretation. They used to exhibit attributive agreement in 19th century Frisian:

a. Dizze noait to forjitte-n-e jierdeifiering
this.CG never to forget.GER.CG anniversary
This unforgettable anniversary
b. De net út to hâlde-n-e neargeastigens
the.CG not out to hold.GER.CG small-mindedness
The unbearable small-mindedness

To-infinitives must still exhibit agreement in Modern Frisian in case they are monosyllabic, though otherwise it is preferably absent. The construction is quite formal, but the judgments are clear:

a. De noch te dwan-e opjeften
the.CG still to do.CG tasks
The tasks that have still to be done
b. *De noch te dwaan opjeften
the.CG still to do tasks
The tasks that have still to be done
c. De net te missen doelen
the.CG not to miss targets
The targets that could not be missed
d. *De net te missen-e doelen
the.CG not to miss.CG targets
The targets that could not be missed

The seven monosyllabic infinitives (and their morphologically derived forms) have the same form for infinitive and gerund, whereas other infinitives distinguish between infinitive (in -e) and gerund (-en). These seven verbs are jaan to give, dwaan to do, slaan to hit, stean to stand, gean to go, sjen to see, tsjen to go.

    printreport errorcite