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The verb sille shall and the irrealis

The past tense of the verb sille shall is the unmarked modal verb for the expression of irrealis in Modern Frisian. Whereas the Dutch equivalent zullen shall lacks a past participle, the Frisian counterpart has a complete paradigm and is used in more semantic contexts. Although the past tense of the irrealis verb may select a perfective infinitive, this construction should not be analysed as a B-construction of the type common in nineteenth-century Frisian. The distinction between realis and irrealis interacts with the distinction between present and past tense. The verb of the irrealis interacts with modal verbs. Verb clusters may feature a deviant word order in case the verb of the irrealis is the tensed verb having a modal verb in its complement (8.6.4). Some irrealis clusters exhibit the phenomenon of double perfect participles, or Participio-pro-Infinitivo (PPI).