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Internal to their projection, attributive past participles behave like verbs and external to their projection like adjectives.


Attributive past participles exhibit attributive agreement, just like adjectives do:

a. Opslein-e gegeven-s
stored.PL data.PL
Stored data
b. In opslein gegeven
a stored piece.of.information
A stored piece of information

Attributive past participles may be accompanied by a by-phrase:

a. In troch de kompjûter opslein gegeven
a by the computer stored piece.of.information
A piece of information stored by the computer
b. It gegeven wurdt troch de kompjûter opslein
the piece.of.information is by the computer stored
The piece of information is stored by the computer

Attributive past participles must be final within their projection, i.e. on the right edge (a requirement known as the Head Final Filter), just like attributive adjectives:

*In [opslein troch de kompjûter] gegeven
a stored by the computer piece.of.information
A piece of information that is stored by the computer

The Head Final Filter is a descriptive generalization dealing with the linearization of arguments and modifiers dependent on the adjective. The Head Final Filter forbids post-head material within prenominal modifiers: an attributive adjective must occur to the right of its arguments and modifiers.

Attributive past participles may be accompanied by temporal adverbials, just like verbs:

In juster opslein gegeven
a yesterday stored piece.of.information
A piece of information stored yesterday

So, attributive phrases built around past participles are internally like verbs in that

  • they may contain temporal adverbs
  • they may contain a passive by-phrase
whereas they are externally like adjectives, in that
  • they are final, to the right, within the phrase and
  • they participate in the process of attributive agreement with the noun and the determiner.
Attributive participles are usually not expanded into full phrases accompanied by verbal dependents, which they are when they occur in predicative position.

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