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8.5 Modification of NPs by adverbial APs

Certain adverbs can be used to modify NPs. In most cases, the function of the adverb is to emphasise an aspect of the NP which it modifies, as in the case of juust ‘exactly, especially’ below:

Hie is juust die Mon, dän iek säike.
he is exactly the man whom I look.for
He is exactly the man I am looking for.

Similar expressions are: besunders ‘especially’, foar aal ‘n ‘especially’.


Adverbs which modify NPs can occur prenominally or postnominally, and normally emphasise a preferential, temporal or local aspect of the relevant nouns. A quantificational adverb is alleen ‘only’, why may precede or follow the noun which it modifies:

Alleen uus Heergod is aalwietend.
only our Lord.God is all-knowing
Only the Lord our God is all-knowing.
Uus Heergod alleen is aalwietend.
Our Lord.God only is all-knowing
Only the Lord our God is all-knowing.

The native word alleen ‘only’ is being ousted by the German loan bloot ‘only’, as in:

Wan man dän Dood koopje kude, dan stoorwen bloot do Äärme.
when one the death bribe could then died only the poor
If it were possible to bribe death, only the poor would die.

The frequency of bloot ‘only’ as a word is already higher in Ford’s dictionary than that of alleen ‘only’. However, though their meanings overlap, there are certain uses in which only one of the two is allowed. Perhaps this parallels the meaning difference between German allein and nur.

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