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Lexical restrictions

There are lexical restrictions on the use of present participles.


Present participles of copular and modal verbs are rare. Most of them are restricted to written language. They are generally found in adverbial constructions, occasionally in attributive or complementive predicative constructions.

a. Benei net mear tinke kinnend fen pine, ûntklaeide hja hjar
almost no more think can.PrP of pain undressed she her
Almost unable to think due to the pain, she undressed herself
b. It stive swier op 'e gong wêzende boerefolk
the stiff heavy of movement being farming.people
The farming people not happy with modernisation
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