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Non-inherent reciprocals

Non-inherent reciprocals are more freely used than inherent reciprocals. They must be translated into English with a reciprocal pronoun, unlike inherent reciprocals. Two examples are provided below:

Example 1

a. Stêd en plattelân wiene faninoar ôfhinklik
town and countryside were of.each.other dependent
Town and countryside depended on each other
b. Hja holden fan mekoar
they held of each.other
They loved each other

The antecedent of a reciprocal occurs in the same clause or Noun Phrase (NP) in which the reciprocal itself occurs. Reciprocals are banned from the subject position of tensed clauses:

Example 2

*Murk en Geart begriepen net dat inoar liigden
Murk and Geert understood not that each other lied
Murk and Geert did not understand that they lied to one another

Reciprocals may occur in non-tensed subject positions:

Example 3

Murk en Diederik hearden inoar net ligen
Murk and Diederik heard each other not lied
Murk and Diederik did not hear each other lie

Reciprocals may occur in possessor position, as shown below:

Example 4

a. Yn elkoars earmen foelen se yn 'e sliep
in each.other's arms fell they in the sleep
In each other's arms, they fell asleep
b. Kinst leare fan krityk op elkoars wurk
can.2SG learn from criticism of each.other's work
One can learn from criticism of each other's work

The antecedent of a reciprocal may remain implicit, as in the following example, where the implicit agent of a passive phrase is the antecedent of a reciprocal:

Example 5

De feriening telt 100 leden en der wurdt opbouwende krityk op inoars wurk levere
the society counts 100 members and there is constructive criticism on each other's work provide
The society counts 100 members, and constructive criticism is provided of each other's work

Non inherent reciprocals can often be paraphrased with the aid of the universal distributive quantifier elk each in the position of the antecedent and the noun oar other in the position of the reciprocal. An example is given below:

Example 6

De famkes sjogge inoar < = > Elk fan 'e famkes sjocht in oar (fan 'e famkes)
the girls see each.other each of the girls sees an other of the girls
The girls see each other <=> Each of the girls sees one of the other girls