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NP modification by adverbial clauses

Various adverbial clauses can be found following the noun.


Some adverbial clauses can be analysed as consisting of a preposition followed by a complementiser, as is the case with sedert since, na after or nadat after. In the latter example, the complementiser dat that has been cliticised onto the preposition. The following two examples involve temporal clauses:

"Nou vier ons ons lang geskiedenis sedert 1918, maar dit word net as boustene gebruik; ons word nie daardeur beperk nie," het hy bygevoeg.
now celebrate we our long history since 1918 but it be.AUX.PASS.PRS just as build.stones use.PASS we be.AUX.PASS.PRS not there.through limit.PASS PTCL.NEG have.AUX he with.add.PST
"Now we celebrate our long history since 1918, but it is only being used as building blocks; we are not limited by it," he added.
'n Paar jaar nadat hy die projek begin het, kon een van sy vriende dit nie meer hou nie en hy het ongenooi daar ingestap.
a few years after he the project begin have.AUX can.AUX.MOD.PRT one of his friends it not anymore keep PTCL.NEG and he have.AUX uninvited there in.walk.PST
A few years after he started the project, one of his friends couldn't take it anymore and he walked in uninvited.

The following two examples involve disjunctive adverbial clauses. The example below involves a yes/no clause introduced by the complementiser of whether. The noun meisie girl binds the antecedental pronoun sy she in the adverbial clause, indicating that the noun is construed with the adverbial clause:

Geen meisie, of sy rooi hare het of nie.
no girl whether she red hair have.PRS or not
No girl, regardless of whether she has red hair or not.

The example below involves a disjunctive adverbial clause of degree, introduced by the complementiser hoe how. The noun seun boy binds the antecedental pronoun hy he in the adverbial clause.

Geen seun, hoe stout hy ook mag wees.
no boy how naughty as he also may.AUX.MOD be.INF
No boy, however naughty he may be.
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