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Realisation of complements external to NP

Noun Phrases (NPs) have an external argument position that is comparable to the subject position of clauses. NPs bearing various thematic roles can also be realised in that position, which is sometimes referred to as the possessor position. An example is given below:

Die meisie se hond
the girl PTCL.GEN dog
The girl's dog

Agents, themes and possessors can not only be realised internally to noun phrases (NPs), but they can also be externally realised, that is, outside the NP. In this case, they appear in the functional domain, which may be referred to as the domain of the determiner phrase (DP). In case agents, themes or possessors are externally realised, they do not have the form of adposition phrases (PPs) but of NPs and use the particle se 's, as indicated in the examples below.

The example below shows that agents can be realised in the genitive position:

'Kringe in 'n bos' se skrywer Dalene Matthee.
circles in a forest PTCL.GEN author Dalene Matthee
Circle in a forest's author Dalene Matthee

The examples below show that themes can be realised externally:

a. Die stad se ondergang
the city PTCL.GEN downfall
The city's downfall
b. Die ou man se afsterwe
the old man PTCL.GEN death
The old man's death

Even when the agent is overtly expressed in a PP introduced by the preposition deur by, can the theme be expressed externally by the particle se:

Die Kaap se oorname deur Brittanje
the Cape PTCL.GEN over.take by Britain
The Cape's takeover by Britain

Externally realised genitive NPs must precede the noun, as shown by the examples above. If the externally realised NP follows the noun, then the resulting phrase is ungrammatical (a), (b) and (d), or changes the possessor (c):

a. *die ondergang stad se*
the downfall city's
b. *die hond dogtertjie se
the dog girl's
c. ?hond se dogtertjie
the dog's girl
d. *se die hond dogtertjie
PTCL.GEN the dog girl

Themes or other elements which are bound to specific prepositions cannot occur externally. The example below shows that a theme bound to the preposition in in cannot occur externally:

a. Die geloof in God
The belief in God
b. ?God se geloof
God's belief

The examples below show that a place adverbial can occur externally:

a. Die plaashuis op Grootvlei
the farmhouse on Grootvlei
The farmhouse on Grootvlei
b. Grootvlei se plaashuis
Grootvlei PTCL.GEN farmhouse
Grootvlei's farmhouse

The example below shows that a time adverbial can occur in the genitive position:

a. Die koerant van verlede week
the newspaper from last week
The newspaper from last week
b. Laas week se koerant
last week PTCL.GEN newspaper
Last week's newspaper
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