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One pattern of Frisian adjectival synthetic compounds consists of a noun, a verb and the suffix -end, which is the ending of present participles originally. Examples are izerhâldend iron-hold-SUFF ferriferous and tiidslinend time-eat-SUFF time-consuming.


Frisian has a couple of synthetic compounds which consist of a noun, a verb and the ending -end of the present participle. Here are some examples:

Table 1
noun verb suffix synthetic compound
izer iron hâlde to hold -end izerhâldend ferriferous
need distress lije to suffer -end needlijend destitute
wrâld world omfiemje to enclose -end wrâldomfiemjend global
gas gas foarmje to form -end gasfoarmjend gasificational
frijheid freedom leavje to love -end frijheidleavjend freedom-loving
god god freezje to fear -end godfreezjend god-fearing
tiid time sline to eat -end tiidslinend time-consuming
grûn ground lizze to lay -end grûnlizzend founding
Frysk Frisian fiele to feel -end Fryskfielend Frisian-minded

Note that these formations cannot be analysed as suffixing instances of noun incorporation, since complex verbs like *izerhâlde iron-hold or *frijheidleavje freedom-love do not exist.

Many members of this type of synthetic compounds belong to an elevated style, which may be due to the fact that the present participle and its suffix -end is not frequently used in the spoken language.

Note that there is a similar pattern with an adjective as first member. This, however, should preferably be analysed as a univerbation with a verb converted to an adjective, and it is therefore dealt with under the heading of adjectival compounds.

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