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Internal to their projection attributive present participles behave like verbs and external to their projection they behave like adjectives.


Present participles may easily occur in attributive position. Like adjectives, they are marked with attributive agreement, as the following pair illustrates:

a. In lûd laitsjend mantsje
a loud laughing man.NG
A loudly laughing man
b. Twa lûd laitsjend-e mantsje-s
two loud laughing.PL man.PL
Two loudly laughing man

Internally, attributive present participles resemble verbs in that particles may be present, whereas lexical adjectives are never accompanied by particles:

a. It mar trochlaitsjende mantsje
the just through.laughing man
The small man who just kept on laughing
b. It mantsje lake mar troch
the small.man laughed just through
The small man just kept on laughing

Attributive present participles must be final in their projection, just like past participles and adjectives when these are used attributively. The following phrases illustrate this:

a. *It [trochlaitsjende mar] mantsje
the through.laughing just man
The small man who just kept on laughing
b. *It [mar laitsjende troch] mantsje
the just laughing through man
The small man who just kept on laughing

Present participles are not normally accompanied by arguments and modifiers, however: the following example sounds artificial:

?De oan de jubilaris it presentsje oerlangjende gastfrou
the to the guest.of.honour the present over.handing hostess
The hostess who hands over the present to the guest of honour
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