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Adpositions and Adposition Phrases in Frisian

The Adposition Phrase (PP) is a structure built around an adposition. The Adposition Phrase is abbreviated as PP, since both prepositions and postpositions are subsumed within adpositions. This abbreviation has the additional advantage that confusion with the Adjective Phrase (AP) is avoided.


Adpositions can be classified by a number of characteristics. Adpositions can have complements. Complement arguments to adpositions are bracketed in the following two examples. The first example below involves a complement of the category Noun Phrase (NP), the second one involves a complement of the category PP:

a. Yn ['e tún]
in the garden
In the garden
b. [By de terp] op
at the mound on
Up the mound

PPs can be modified by, for example, PPs, APs and NPs, which consequently function as adverbials (modification of PPs). In the examples below, the modifier has been bracketed:

a. [Twa meter] ûnder de grûn
two meter beneath the ground
Two meters beneath the surface
b. [Hielendal] op
completely up
Completely finished

Verbal particles are adpositions (without a complement), which are bracketed in the examples below:

a. De film falt [ôf]
the movie falls down
The movie is disappointing
b. Margriet skille him [op]
Margriet phoned him up
Margriet phoned him up

PPs show up in various types of predication, as shown below:

a. Romke rekke [yn 'e sûs]
Romke becomes in the swoon
Romke fell in a swoon
b. Sy hoecht gjin man [yn 'e hûs]
she needs no man in the house
She does not need a man in the house

Prepositions can be stranded by R-pronouns, but the R-pronoun may also be omitted (preposition stranding and R-pronouns):

Praten hâldt er net fan
talking likes he not of
Talking, he does not like
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