• Dutch
  • Frisian
  • Saterfrisian
  • Afrikaans
Show all
Extraction of prepositional complements

In Afrikaans, when a prepositional complement is extracted from an adposition phrase (PP) directly contained within a noun phrase (NP), it results in a semantically marked construction, in other words into a construction with the grammaticality of which is questionable. In the first example below the preposition van of cannot be extracted from the R-pronoun wie who, and in the second example the preposition van of cannot be extracted from the pronoun waar where.

a. ?Die skilder wat ek 'n skildery van het.
that painter that.REL I a painting of have.PRS
The painter that I have a painting of
b. Die skilder van wie ek 'n skildery het.
the painter of who I a painting have.PRS
The painter of whom I have a painting
a. ?Die appel wat ek die skil van eet.
the apple that.REL I the peel of eat
the apple of which I'm eating the peel.
b. Die appel waarvan ek die skil eet.
the appel REL.of I the peel eat
The apple of which I'm eating the peel.
c. *Die appel waar ek die skil van eet.
the apple where I the peel of eat
The apple of which I'm eating the peel.

Prepositional complements in Afrikaans cannot be extracted from PPs that seem to be directly contained in NPs. Although examples of the extraction of prepositional complements can be found in a historical corpus of written Afrikaans in 1911-1920 (see example below), no further or later examples of prepositional extraction from a PP could be found in any corpus of written Afrikaans. The possibility to extract prepositional complements from PPs, seems to have fallen into disuse from around the middle of the 20th century, together with the disappearance of die the as relative pronoun (Kirsten 2016:222). Furthermore, in the example below, the extraction occurs with the pronoun waar where, and not wat what, as in the first examples provided.

Sprenkel elke drie maande 'n bietjie terpentijn in laaie of kiste waar wol klere in gehou word.
sprinkle every three months a little turpentine in drawers or chests where wool clothes in hold.PASS become.AUX.PASS.PRS
Every three months, sprinkle a little bit of turpentine in drawers and chests in which cloths are kept.
HCSA, 1911-1920, Informative
    printreport errorcite