• Dutch
  • Frisian
  • Afrikaans
Show full table of contents

Pseudo-participles are adjectives which have the morphological shape of participles. An example is given below:

Example 1

Foppe is besibbe oan Riemer
Foppe is related to Riemer
Foppe is related to Riemer

Their behaviour may be different from that of ordinary adjectives.


Historically, pseudo-participles usually derive from participles. An example is the adjective besibbe related, which has the morphological shape of a past participle of the class of -je verbs. Pseudo-participles are different from ordinary adjectives in that they allow or even prefer stranded prepositions to their left:

Example 2

a. Dêr is er nau oan besibbe
R is he closely to related
He is closely related to them
b. ?Dêr is er nau besibbe oan
R is he closely related to
He is closely related to them

Not every pseudo participle behaves like this. The pseudo participle benaud timid, afraid prefers to have a referential prepositional complement on the right, like ordinary adjectives:

Example 3

a. *Dêr is er tige foar benaud
R is he very for afraid
He is very afraid of that
b. Dêr is er tige benaud foar
R is he very afraid of
He is very afraid of that