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The suffix -k can derive verbs from adjectives. There are only a few examples, like blier happy > blierkje to look happy.

The suffix -k mainly derives verbs from other verbs, or from nouns.


The combination of the suffix -k and an adjectival base is rather rare. One example is leaf sweet > leafkje to caress. A rhyming effect is suggested by the triplet blier happy > blierkje to look happy, skier almost > skierkje to age, fier far > fierkje to gaze into the distance. In these cases we see breaking (in this case of [iə] to [jI]), which is not uncommon in derivations with -k.

The forms mentioned above do not belong to daily language anymore. Maybe, this is a little different with sleaukje to linger (from sleau lethargic) and loaikje be idle (from loai lazy). The basic adjectives of these verbs end in a vowel, which may be an impetus for suffixation with -k.

The main function of the suffix seems to be to change the word class. As this can also be performed by conversion alone, the element -k can be viewed as an extra marking. As with other derivations with -k, the resulting verb follows the paradigm of the weak verbs of class II (so-called je-verbs).

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This topic is mainly based on Hoekstra (1998:153).

  • Hoekstra, Jarich1998Fryske wurdfoarmingLjouwertFryske Akademy