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The suffix -er derives verbs from other verbs. The derived verbs denote a repetition of the action of the base form, for example: klomje to be blue with cold > klommerje to suffer with cold.

Other verbal suffixes with an iterative or frequentative function are -el and -k.

[+]General properties

-er derives verbs from other verbs, denoting a repetition of the action of the base form. The base form often has an iterative or frequentative function already, so the derivation only serves as a reinforcement of this function. Examples are given in the table below:

Table 1
Base form Derivation
snjitte to spout snjitterje spout repeatedly
stjitte to bump stjitterje to stutter
tûkje to prick tûkerje to prickle
snokke to sob snokkerje to break out in sobs
gobje to joke gobberje to poke fun at
gûkje to watch gûkerje to watch closely
klamje to clasp klammerje to clasp tightly
klappe to applaud klapperje to chatter
kloetsje to pole kluotterje to pole continously
It is questionable whether one can always speak of synchronic derivations in these cases. The relation between derivation and base form is opaque anyhow in beevje to tremble > bibberje to tremble with and size to hiss > systerje to make a hissing noise.
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Another suffix -er

The suffix -er can also derive adjectives from verbs.

[+]Relation to the suffix -el

The suffix -er [ər] has a comparable suffix -el, which can also derive verbs from other verbs. There is no clear rule for the choice between the use of -er or -el. More details can be found in the topic on -el).

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This topic is based on Hoekstra (1998:142).

  • Hoekstra, Jarich1998Fryske wurdfoarmingLjouwertFryske Akademy