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Geographical adjectives ending in -er

One of the many uses of the suffix -er /ər/ is in geographical adjectives such as Haarlemmer from/related to Haarlem, Berlijner from/related to Berlin or Groninger from/related to Groningen. The suffix is used most often in fixed combinations such as Edammer kaas Edam cheese or Ardenner ham Ardennes ham.

Geographical adjectives in -er can only be used attributively and they do not take inflectional endings.

[+]General properties, input, stratum, productivity

The geographical suffix -er attaches mainly to native place names. The only case where the base is unambiguously an inhabitant name is Malta Malta > Maltees (a) Maltese > Maltezer Maltese - this is also one of the incidental cases where the place name is non-native. The affix is productive, although its sister suffix -s is a more usual choice.

Adjectives in -er cannot be used predicatively (*de koek was Groninger the cake was from Groningen). When used attributively, the adjectives do not inflect.

[+]Phonological properties

The suffix -er is cohering and does not influence the stress of the base word.

[+]Morphological potential

The suffix -er is not available for other derivational processes.