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Word-final sequences of a fricative and a plosive

This section deals with the voiceless and voiced word-final sequences of a fricative and a plosive. The majority of the voiced sequences appear to occur in complex (derived) words, which, moreover, are old loanwords from Dutch. This is different for the voiceless sequences, which also occur in native words. This topic provides overviews of both types of sequence.

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For the (voiceless) sequences of /s/ + plosive, in either order, see complex segments.

[+]Voiceless word-final sequences of a fricative and a plosive

The voiceless word-final sequences of a fricative and a plosive, in that order, are /-ft/ and /-xt/. Examples of words in which they occur are heft /hɛft/ handle, haft, krêft /krɛ:ft/ strength, power(s), force, nicht /nɪxt/ (female) cousin, and lucht /løxt/ air; smell, scent.

[+]Voiced word-final clusters of a fricative and a plosive

The voiced word-final sequences of a fricative and a plosive, in either order, are /-bz/, /-dz/, /-vd/, /-zd/, and /-ɣd/. Some aspects of their distribution are worth mentioning:

  • These sequences are mainly restricted to complex (derived) words with a fixed, more or less idiomatic meaning. This does not hold for their voiceless counterparts.
  • Most words ending in one of the sequences /-vd/, /-zd/, or /-ɣd/ are loanwords from Dutch. This is not the case with the voiceless counterparts /-ft/, /-st/, and /-xt/.
  • The sequences /bz-/, /dz-/, /vd-/, /zd-/, and /ɣd-/ do not occur in word-initial position, nor do their mirror images /zb-/, /zd-/, /dv-/, /dz-/ and /dɣ-/. The voiced fricatives /z/ and /ɣ/ are not allowed word-initially (see the obstruents: the fricatives). In line with the Resolvability Constraint (see onset: sequences of more than two consonants), this also holds of the sequences /bz-/, /dz-/, /zd-/, /ɣd-/, /zb-/, /zd-/, /dz-/, and /dɣ-/. Since /v/ is allowed word-initially (see the obstruents: the fricatives), which also holds of /d-/, both /dv-/ and /vd-/ should be possible word-initial sequences as well, but this is contrary to fact. Their voiceless counterparts, /tf-/ and /ft-/, are not possible word-initial sequences either; this links up with the impossibility of word-initial /dv-/ and /vd-/, which does not count as an independent explanation. On the other hand, the voiceless counterparts of /-bz/, /-dz/, and /-zd/ ‒ viz. /ps-/, /ts-/, and /st-/ ‒ do occur in word-initial position (as complex segments). All in all, voiced obstruent sequences have a far better place in word-final than in word-initial position.
The allowed word-final sequences of voiced obstruents will now be dealt with in turn.

Example 1

Words ending in /-ɣd/
deugd /dø:ɣd/ virtue; quality, excellence
drompelmaagd /drompəl#ma:ɣd/ (female) sponger, scrounger
foogd /fo:ɣd/ guardian; custodian
freugde /frø:ɣdə/ joy
jeugd /jø:ɣd/ youth
smaragd /smaraɣd/ emerald
ûnbebûgd /[un[[bə+bu:ɣ]d]]/ uninflected; straight
ûndoogd /un+do:ɣd/ post-partum discharge (of a cow)

The word foogd is an interference from Dutch; the same holds for the part maagd of the compound drompelmaagd. Most Frisian words with <eu> ( /ø:/) are loanwords from Dutch; deugd, jeugd, and freugde, however, have been wholly integrated into the Frisian lexicon. The words ûnbebûgd and ûndoogd are complex (derived) words, as indicated. The sequence /-ɣd/ frequently occurs in the past participle of verbs (of the first weak and strong/irregular class) with a stem ending in /-ɣ/, like (hy hat) liigd /li:ɣ+d/ (he has) lied and (it hat hjir) siigd /si:ɣ+d/ it has been draughty here (see past participle). In word-final position, /-ɣd/ is realized as [-xt] (see final devoicing: obstruent clusters).

Example 2

Words ending in -/zd/
betiisd /[[bə+ti:z]+d]/ confused, muddled
blêsd /blɛ:z+d/ with a blaze
ferbaasd /[[fər+ba:z]d]/ astonished, amazed; extraordinarily
ferbuisd /[[fər+bʌɥz]d]/ wearied, worn out
ferdwaasd /[[fər+dwa:z]d]/ foolish; groggy
ferrûsd /[[fər+ru:z]d]/ foolish; groggy
ferweesd /[[fər+ve:z]d]/ dazed, dumbfounded
seisd /sajz+d/ sixthly
ûnbesûsd /[un[[bə+su:z]d]]/ rash, impetuous
ûnferpoasd /[un[[fər+poəz]d]]/ continuous

With the exception of seisd, these are all past participles, whether or not preceded by the negative prefix ûn- ( /un-/) (see ûn-), derived from a prefixed verb. Some are only formal (pseudo-)participles, since there is no synchronic (complex) verb from which they can be derived (ferweesd, ferbuisd, ferrûsd, ûnbesûsd). The sequence /-zd/ frequently shows up in the past participle of verbs (of the first weak and strong/irregular class) with a stem ending in /-z/, like (hy hat) raasd /ra:z+d/ (he has) shouted, yelled and (hy hat) wiisd /vi:z+d/ (he has) pointed, shown (see past participle). In word-final position, /-zd/ is realized as [-st] (see final devoicing: obstruent clusters).

Example 3

Words ending in -/vd/
bedroefd /[[bə+dru:v]d]/ sad, sorrowful
begaafd /[[bə+ɡa:v]d]/ gifted, talented
beleefd /[[bə+le:v]d]/ polite
beskaafd /[[bə+ska:v]d]/ cultured; civilised
eigenerfd /ajɣən#ɛrv+d/ having his own (lit.: inherited) farm
eigenweefd /ajɣən#ve:v+d/ woven by oneself
ferkleefd /[[fər+kle:v]d]/ stuck together
ferleafd /[[fər+lɪəv]d]/ in love (with), amorous
ferloofd /[[fər+lo:v]d]/ engaged (to)
ferskaafd /[[fər+ska:v]d]/ worn out through chafing, grating
hoofd /ho:vd/ head, chief

Except for hoofd, which is an unmistakable loanword from Dutch, these are also (pseudo-)past participles. The cluster /-vd/ is frequently found in the past participle of verbs (of the first weak and strong/irregular class) with a stem ending in /-v/, like (it hat) kleefd /kle:v+d/ (it has) stuck, (it) has been sticky and (hy hat) gnúfd /ɡny:v+d/ (he has) leered, peeked; nosed (about) (see past participle). In word-final position, /-vd/ is realized as [-ft] (see final devoicing: obstruent clusters).

Whereas the great majority of the words ending in /-ɣd/, /-zd/, and /-vd/ are loanwords from Dutch, words ending in /-dz/ and /-bz/ are simplex words, which belong to the native part of the lexicon. They will now be treated in turn.

Example 4

Words ending in -/dzə/
glodze /ɡlodzə/ trench
gludze /ɡlødzə/ trench
gnodze /ɡnodzə/ club, bludgeon; gnarl, knur(r)
knodze /knodzə/ gnarl, knur(r)
ludze /lødzə/ loop; tress
trudze /trødzə/ glanders, strangles
widze /vɪdzə/ cradle
wu(r)dze /vødzə/ windrow (of hay)

Since all these words end in schwa, /-dz-/ is in intervocalic position, where it is realized as voiced. The word ludze has the variant luts, with word-final voiceless /-ts/ (see final devoicing: obstruent clusters). Also in the diminutive of widze, i.e. widske little cradle, /-dz-/ ends up as voiceless: [vɪtskə]; this is the normal pattern for diminutives standing next to nouns with a voiced final obstruent or obstruent sequence (see the phonological domain of final devoicing).

Example 5

Words ending in /-bz/ or /-dz/
blabze/blabs /blabz(ə)/ ooze, sludge ; cf. blabber /blabər/ ooze, sludge
blibze /blɪbzə/ lower lip (of horse) ; cf. blib/blibbe /blɪb(ə)/ lower lip (of horse)
brodze /brodzə/ heap of pulpy excrements ; cf. brod /brod/ brood
dodze /dodzə/ doze, drowse ; cf. dod/dodde /dod(ə)/ doze, drowse
drabze drabs /drabz(ə)/ ooze, sludge ; cf. Dutch drab /drɑb/ dregs; ooze
dribze dribs /drɪbz(ə)/ ooze, sludge
dridze /drɪdzə/ ooze, sludge
drits /drɪts/ ooze, sludge ; cf. drit(e) /drit/ to crap, to shit
fladze flads /fladz(ə)/ gush; cunt, twat ; cf. fladder(je) /fladər/ to flutter
flodze flods /flodz(ə)/ cunt, twat ; cf. flodder(je) /flodər/ to flap, to flop
fodze fods /fodz(ə)/ cunt, twat ; cf. fod/fodde /fod(ə)/ rag, tatter
fotse fots /fots(ə)/ cunt, twat
kwabze /kwabzə/ dollop, blob ; cf. kwab/kwabbe /kwab(ə)/ flab, jowl
pudze puds /pødz(ə)/ (long, empty) foreskin of the genital organs of a stallion ; cf. pûde /pudə/ bag, sack
slodze /slodzə/ trench
sodze /sodzə/ swampy, marshy plot of land ; cf. sodde /sodə/ trench

Diachronically, these words have been derived with the suffix -z(e) ( /-z(ə)/) from a stem ending in /-{b/d}/. The meaning characteristics they have in common point to a derivation with one and the same suffix. They denote a weak (watery) substance, a (weak) fold of the skin, or a trench (the bottom of which is covered with or consists of sludge).

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Due to the uncommon and unfamiliar consonant sequencesclusters /-bz-/ and /-dz-/, the above words have an onomatopoeic character, however difficult to define.

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After attaching the suffix -z(e) ( /-z(ə)/) to the verbal stem drit(e) /drit/ to crap, to shit, suffixal /z/ has assimilated to stem-final /-t/ or the other way around, which led to two derivatives, viz. drits /drɪts/ and drids /drɪdz/. The former is the basis of the verb drits(e) to crap, to shit (see also bedrits(e) /bə+drɪts/ to shit over and skieppedrits(e) /skjɪp+ə#drɪts/ to milk the sheep), whereas both occur in the derived adjectives dritsich /drɪts+əɣ/ and dridzich /drɪdz+əɣ/ oozy, sludgy.

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In the same way that fots derives from fods, the form smots /smots/ pulp; applesauce is likely to have derived from smodz /smod+z/, witness forms like smodz(je) to become a muddy mess, smodzich /smodz+əɣ/ pulpy, smodzeboel /smodzə#buəl/ muddy mess, besmodz(je) /bə+smodz/ to soil, to dirty; to besmirch. Compare English smut and German Schmutz and schmutzig.