• Dutch
  • Frisian
  • Afrikaans
Show full table of contents
The reciprocal pronoun

A reciprocal is a type of pronoun that must find an antecedent within a local domain, which is generally the clause. The semantic effect of a reciprocal is that each individual making up the antecedent is involved in an event which involves the other individuals as well. In addition, the individuals making up the antecedent are not reflexively involved in the event. Consider the following examples:

Example 1

Hja waskje elkoar
they wash each other
They wash each other

The reciprocal has the same shape, regardless of the person and number properties of the antecedent. There is some lexical variation in its shape. The reciprocal in Frisian may appear as: elkoar, inoar, mekoar. Preposition and reciprocal are usually written as one word in Frisian, though this also depends on the preposition involved.

Two types of reciprocal constructions are distinguished. The first type are inherent reciprocals, which are reciprocals forming an idiomatic combination with verbs and prepositions. The second type, non-inherent reciprocals, are relatively freely used in clauses.


More details about the reciprocal pronoun can be found by following the corresponding links: