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The vocative function

Noun Phrases (NPs) which are used in the vocative do not exhibit any special morphology. Vocative NPs are characteristically proper nouns, presumably because they have a unique reference in the domain of discourse. An example is given below:

Example 1

Romke, kom hjir ris!
Romke come here DcP
Romke, could you come over here?

Nouns denoting a profession of some social importance are also easily used as vocatives:

Example 2

Dokter, wolle jo efkes meikomme?
doctor want you.2FM DcP along.come
Doctor, could you come along, please?

Similar nouns in this usage are master teacher, dûmny parson, notaris notary, kastlein inn keeper. In principle, any noun denoting a professional can be used in the vocative. Nouns denoting family relations may also be used in this way, as is shown by the example below:

Example 3

Mem, ha jo al iten?
mother have you.2FM yet eaten
Mother, have you eaten already?

Similar nouns in this usage are: heit father, pake granddad, beppe grandmother, omke uncle, muoike or tante aunt. Notably absent from this list are broer brother and suster sister. However, broer brother may occasionally be heard in vocative function:

Example 4

Broer, hasto al iten?
brother have.2SG yet eaten
Brother, have you eaten already?

Professional nouns and family nouns can also be used as nouns of address, similar to second person pronouns.