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The prefix troch- creates adjectives on the basis of other adjectives. Derivations with troch- have an intensifying function in relation to the base form. An example is droech dry > trochdroech very dry.

[+]General properties

The prefix troch- forms adjectives on the basis of other adjectives. It is related to the preposition troch through. Derivations with troch- have an intensifying function in relation to the base form. Examples are given in the table below:

Table 1
Base form Derivation
droech dry trochdroech very dry
earlik honest trochearlik very honest
goed good trochgoed very well
min bad trochmin quite bad
kâld cold trochkâld very cold
siik sick trochsiik very sick
swiet sweet trochswiet very sweet
waarm hot trochwaarm very hot
weak soft trochweak very soft
bedaard calm trochbedaard very calm
sêd satisfied trochsêd totally satisfied
jaloersk jealous trochjaloersk very jealous
lilk angry trochlilk very angry
knap handsome trochknap very handsome

The formation trochwiet soaking wet is lexicalized. This can be argued by the fact that the word trochwiet can be strenghtened itself, as in dweiltrochwiet extremely wet or stronttrochwiet extremely wet. The other derivations mentioned in the table above cannot be input for such further strenghtening, i.e. *stientrochkâld extremely cold or *strietrochmin extremely bad.

[+]Further intensification by reduplication

However, further intensification can be effected by reduplication. Both occurrences of the prefix are concatenated by the conjunction en and, for example in troch-en-trochryp, although most often the historical form ende is preferred. We then get formations like troch-ende-trochdroech, troch-ende-trochlilk, etc. Some speakers also insert an /r/ before the second occurrence of troch-, hence as troch-ende-r-troch-, possibly an instance of rule inversion with respect to R-deletion. Even further intensification can be obtained by insertion of the particle wer again. This results in formations like troch-ende-wer-troch-ryp, troch-ende-wer-troch-kâld, etc.

[+]Phonological properties

Derivations receive primary stress on the prefix, for example TROCHgoed, TROCHmin, TROCHsiik. Some speakers make an exception in the word trochWIET soaking wet, another indication that this word has become lexicalized.


This topic is mainly based on Hoekstra (1998:71-72). The lexicalization of trochwiet soaking wet is mentioned in Sytstra & Hof (1925:93). The phenomenon of insertion of /r/ in general has been observed by Hoekema (1959:72). See also Visser (2014:246-247).

  • Hoekema, Teake1959Oer de ûnhistoaryske R yn it FryskUs Wurk872
  • Hoekstra, Jarich1998Fryske wurdfoarmingLjouwertFryske Akademy
  • Sytstra, Onno H. & Hof, Jan J1925Nieuwe Friesche SpraakkunstLeeuwardenR. van der Velde
  • Visser, Willem2014Hoe stom is de stomme /r/?Philologia Frisica anno 2012. Lezingen fan it njoggentjinde Frysk Filologenkongres fan de Fryske Akademy op 13, 14 en 15 juny 2012243-268
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