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Adv > V

Verbal conversion from an adverb is relatively rare. An example is healwiizje to act foolishly, which derives from healwiis foolish(ly).


Conversion of an adverb to a verb is a marginal affair. It mostly occurs with adverbs that also occur as adjectives. The meaning of the converted verb is something like 'to act in a way that is expressed by the adverb'. Examples are healwiis foolish > healwiizje to act foolishly, wyld wild > wyldzje to be on the go and gek crazy > gekje to act crazy.

Furthermore, there are a few cases of adverbial bases that can be considered as univerbations of phrases. Examples are hinne-en-wer to-and-fro > hinne-en-werje to walk up and down and út fan hûs out of house staying overnight > útfanhúzje to stay over. The verb op-en-delderje to fuck (from op en del up and down) must have been derived from a verb op-en-delje, since the iterative or frequentative suffix -er only attaches to verbs. This intermediate verb, although completely conceivable, has not been attested, however.

As with the other verbal conversions, the resulting verbs belong to weak class II.

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This topic is based on Hoekstra (1998:152).

  • Hoekstra, Jarich1998Fryske wurdfoarmingLjouwertFryske Akademy