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The comparative of the equative function word lyk same can be negated in a predicative construction to introduce a clause expressing a metaphor.


The basic meaning of the equative is that it denotes sameness of degree. The function word signalling an equative is lyk same. Its comparative can be negated to introduce a metaphor that is predicated of the pronoun it it:

Example 1

It wie net liker as waard er fermoarde
it was not same.CPR as was he murdered
It was just as if he was being murdered

The phrase net liker not the same can be left out in the example above, and krekt just may be added:

Example 2

It wie (krekt) as waard er fermoarde
it was just as was he murdered
It was just as if he was murdered

The complementiser as as if is characteristically used to introduce metaphors, in case it is followed by the tensed verb in the first position of the clause. The phrase sa lyk as so same as is often found in older Frisian, but it does not involve a metaphor:

Example 3

It praat begun sa lyk as dat altyd giet
the talk began so same as that always goes
The talking began like it always does

Sa lyk as so same as can be replaced in the example above with Modern Frisian krekt sa same as or with the somewhat old-fashioned net liker as same as.

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More details can be found in Hoekstra (2000).

  • Hoekstra, Jarich2000Sa en net oars of: waar vergelijking en ontkenning elkaar ontmoetenBesten, Hans den, Elffers, Els & Luif, Jan (eds.)Samengevoegde woorden: voor Wim Klooster bij zijn afscheid als hoogleraarUniversiteit van Amsterdam135-144