• Dutch
  • Frisian
  • Saterfrisian
  • Afrikaans
Show all

Not all past participles can be used attributively.


The past participle of wêze be cannot be used attributively:

a. *In yn 'e boarterstún west berntsje
an in the playground been child.NG
A child that has been to the playground
b. *Twa siik west-e lytsfeint-en
two ill been.PL farmer's.help.PL
Two farmers who have been ill

The same applies to the past participles of other copular auxiliaries and of modal auxiliaries:

Table 1
hân had
skynd appeared
blykt turned out
lykt seemed
Table 2
moatten must
kind, kinnen can
wold, wollen wanted
doarst, doard dared
hoegd needed
sild, sillen will, shall
Past participles of monosyllabic verbs often yield a degraded result. These include:
Table 3
Infinitive past participle
jaan, jûn given
dwaan, dien done
tsjen, tein gone
sjen, sjoen see
gean, gien gone
A minimal pair is given below:

a. It echtpear is nei Boksum ta ferfearn / gien
the couple is to Boksum POST moved / gone
The couple has moved / gone to Boksum
b. In nei Boksum ta ferfearn echtpear
a to Boksum POST moved couple.NG
A couple that has moved to Boksum
c. *In nei Boksum ta gien echtpear
the to Boksum POST moved couple.NG
The couple that moved to Boksum

Such examples improve if the participle is accompanied by a prefix:

?In my ûntgien flaterke
a me un.gone mistake
A mistake I failed to notice
    printreport errorcite