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Supplementive constructions

Supplementives describe a temporary state that receives a simultaneous or conditional interpretation with respect to what is described in the main clause. Supplementives can be classified depending on whether their structure is bare or full-fledged. The absolute with construction instantiates a full-fledged supplementive.

A bare supplementive consists of an adjective phrase (AP) predicated of a noun phrase (NP) functioning as subject or direct object.

Sy kom uitgeput by die gastehuis aan.
she come exhausted at the guesthouse on
She arrived at the guesthouse, exhausted.

The absolute with construction contains a complementiser (the preposition met with), the argument of the predication (losskakel fly half) and the AP predicate:

Met die beste losskakel beseer, het die keurders 'n groot kopseer.
with the best fly.half injured have the selectors a big headache
With the best fly half injured, the selectors have a big problem.

A bare supplementive consists of an AP predicated of a NP functioning as subject or direct object, while the absolute with construction involves a complementiser and an extension.

Bare supplementive
In supplementive and appositive constructions, the predication is an optional addition to the clause. The predication is integrated in the outer structure as an adverb:

Gert het besope by die partytjie opgedaag.
Gert have.AUX plastered at the party arrived
Gert arrived at the party, drunk.

Adjectives such as dronk drunk and kaal naked, for example, are frequently used in a supplementive construction. Like adverbs of manner, such as vinnig fast, they can be questioned with the aid of the question word hoe? how?

Hoe het hy oor die baan gestap?
how have.AUX he across the court walked
How did he walk across the court?
Vinnig of stadig?
Fast or slow?
Kaal of met klere klere aan?
naked or with clothes on
Naked or clothed?

Manner adverbs can be coordinated with supplementives:

Hy het dronk en veels te vinnig op die N1 gery.
he have.AUX driven drunk and much too fast on the N1
He drove drunk and way too fast on the N1.

Unlike manner adverbs, supplementive adjectives involves a predication of a covert argument, that is co-referential with (controlled by) the subject of the clause or the direct object:

Sy het die klere ongestryk aangetrek.
she have.AUX the clothes unironed put.on
She put on the clothes unironed.

Absolute with construction
The predicate of an absolute with construction is usually of the category PP, but AP is also possible:

Met Faf op sy stukke sal die span beslis wen.
with Faf on his pieces will.AUX.MOD the team surely win
'With Faf in great shape, the team is bound to win.
Met Dale beseer, kan hulle moontlik verloor.
with Dale inured can.AUX.MOD they possibly lose
'With Dale inured, they might possibly lose.

The constituent as a whole receives a simultaneous or conditional interpretation with respect to what is described in the main clause. Supplementives also have this semantic property.

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