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A Noun Phrase (NP) can function as a possessor.


The following phrases illustrate the use of the NP Peke Donia as a possessor:

Example 1

a. Peke Donia syn boek
Peke Donia his book
Peke Donia's book
b. Peke Donia's boek
Peke Donia's book
Peke Donia's book

The possessor can be expressed in two ways. It can be expressed as a genitival NP as in (a) above, in which a voiceless alveolar fricative is suffixed to the NP. This option is by and large restricted to proper names. It can also be expressed as a bare NP followed by a doubling possessive pronoun as in (b) above. This option is not restricted to proper names. So the construction with the doubling pronoun is reserved for possessors realised as NPs which are not proper names, as shown below:

Example 2

a. Dy lange jonge syn fyts
that tall boy his bike
That tall boy's bike
b. *Dy lange jonges fyts
that tall boy's bike
That tall boy's bike

The doubling possessor construction is only allowed in case the possessive pronoun doubles a non-pronominal NP. It is not allowed to have the possessive pronoun double a pronominal NP, regardless of whether the possessor pronoun involved is in the nominative, as in (b), or in the case reserved for objects, as in (c):

Example 3

a. Dizze froulju har hannen
these women her hands
These women's hands
b. *Sy har hannen
she her hands
Her hands
c. *Har har hannen
her her hands
Her hands

Hence the doubling construction cannot be used for the first and second person.