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Syntactic characterisation
quickinfo

The main syntactic characteristics of Afrikaans verbs should be considered separately for main clauses and dependent clauses, and within the set of main clauses, separately for declaratives, interrogatives and imperatives.

In declarative main clauses, one verb – a non-main verb if present, or else the main verb itself, occupies the second position of the clause. The verb is preceded by the subject, unless another element is topicalised, in which case that element occupies the first position, followed by the verb and then the subject. This contrast is illustrated by the examples in (1), where (1a) illustrates SVX-order and (1b) illustrates XVSX-order.

Example 1

a. Al sulke inkonsekwensies maak die spelling moeilik vir kinders.
[(SBJ) Al sulke inkonsekwensies] [(Vprs) maak] [(OBJ) die spelling] [(PRED) moeilik] [(ADV vir kinders]
all such inconsistencies make.PRS the spelling difficult for children
All such inconsistencies make the spelling difficult for children.
AHC, 1920
b. Vir kinders maak al sulke inkonsekwensies die spelling moeilik.
[(ADV Vir kinders] [(Vprs) maak] [(SBJ) al sulke inkonsekwensies] [(OBJ) die spelling] [(PRED) moeilik]
for children make.PRS all such inconsistencies the spelling difficult
For children, all such inconsistencies make the spelling difficult.

If one or more non-main verbs are present in the declarative main clause, a non-main verb occupies the second position, and the main and any other non-main verbs are found on the right edge of the clause, as shown in (2).

Example 2

Al sulke inkonsekwensies kan die spelling vir kinders moeilik maak.
[(SBJ) Al sulke inkonsekwensies] [(Vaux) kan] [(OBJ) die spelling] [(ADV) vir kinders] [(PRED) moeilik] [(Vprs) maak]
all such inconsistencies can the spelling for children difficult make.INF
All such inconsistencies can make the spelling difficult for children.

In dependent clauses, all verbs are found on the right edge of the clause, as illustrated in (3). There are specific ordering relations between the main verb and the various types of non-main verbs, which are set out in the ReadMore section.

Example 3

...dat literatuur nie 'n taal maak nie.
[(COMP) dat] [(SBJ) literatuur] [(NEG) nie] [(OBJ) 'n taal] [(Vprs) maak] [(NEG) nie]
COMP literature not a language make NEG
...that literature does not make a language.
AHC, 1914

In clause types other than the declarative, word order is used to differentiate between the various types. The main verb is placed first in imperatives. An auxiliary, if present, or else the main verb, takes the first position in a yes/no interrogative, followed by the remaining arguments and adverbials. In WH-interrogatives, the interrogative element comes first, followed by a non-main verb if present, or else the main verb, then the subject, then other arguments and adverbials. Whenever the main verb does not occupy the first or second position of a main clause, it is positioned at the right edge of the clause, together with any other non-main verbs except the one found in the first or second position of the clause.

readmore
[+] Verb second in declarative main clauses

The default word order in declarative main clauses in Afrikaans is verb-second. The default option, together a range of other typical verbal complements, is illustrated by the examples in (4).

Example 4

a. Die lawaai verstom.
[(SBJ) Die lawaai] [(Vprs) verstom]
the noise render.speechless.PRS
The noise stuns.
AHC
b. Die kat hardloop verder.
[(SBJ) Die kat] [(Vprs) hardloop] [(ADV) verder]
the cat run.PRS further
The cat runs further.
AHC
c. Die jongste neem haar hand.
[(SBJ) Die jongste] [(Vprs) neem] [(OBJ) haar hand]
the youngest take.PRS her hand
The youngest takes her hand.
AHC
d. Die ander gebied van intensiewe landbou is die kusstreek van Natal.
[(SBJ) Die ander gebied van intensiewe landbou] [(Vprs) is] [(PRED) die kusstreek van Natal]
the other area of intensive agriculture be.PRS the coastal.region of Natal
The area of intensive agriculture is the coastal belt of Natal.
AHC

Unlike English, Afrikaans verb-second does not amount to strict SVX word order, because the initial position, before the verb, can be occupied by clausal constituents other than the subject as well, most typically adverbials, in which case the subject will follow, rather than precede the verb. These options are illustrated by the following examples, where it is shown that it does not matter whether that adverbial is a single adverb, as in (5a), a preposition phrase, as in (5b) or even a subordinate clause as in (5c) and (5d). The verb remains in second position in transitive (5b), intransitive (5a and 5c) and even copular constructions (5d), with the subject following the verb.

Example 5

a. Skielik glimlag hy verlig.
[(ADV, Adv) Skielik] [(Vprs) glimlag] [(SBJ) hy] [(ADV) verlig]
suddenly smile.PRS he relieved
Suddenly he smiles with relief.
AHC
b. Op daardie oomblik stop die kok die skottel in die oond.
[(ADV, PP) Op daardie oomblik] [(Vprs) stop] [(SBJ) die kok] [(OBJ) die skottel] [(ADV) in die oond]
at that moment put.PRS the cook the dish in the oven
At that moment, the cook puts the dish in the oven.
AHC
c. Voor sy loop, sit Jessica lank stil.
[(ADV, Clause) Voor sy loop] [(Vprs) sit] [(SBJ) Jessica] [(ADV) lank stil]
before she walk.PRS sit.PRS Jessica long quietly
Before she goes, Jessica sits quietly for a long time.
AHC
d. Toe hulle na die langnaweek terugkeer, was daar geen spoor van haar nie.
[(ADV, Clause) Toe hulle na die langnaweek terugkeer] [(Vpst) was] [(SBJ) daar] [(PRED) geen spoor van haar] [(NEG) nie]
when they after the long.weekend return.PRS be.PST there no trace of her NEG
When they returned after the long weekend, there was no trace of her.
AHC

When the main clauses consists of a single main verb and no non-main verbs, the main verb itself occupies the second position. However, if any non-main verb is used, the main verb is positioned at the right edge of the clause and one of the non-main verbs occupy the second position in the clause, as illustrated by the examples in (6). This applies whether the clause begins with the subject or an adverbial.

Example 6

a. Die Israeliete het veertig jaar in die woestyn manna geëet.
[(SBJ) Die Israeliete] [(Vaux) het] [(ADV) veertig jaar] [(ADV) in die woestyn] [(OBJ) manna] [(Vpst-ptcp) geëet].
the Israelites have.AUX forty year in the desert manna PST.PTCP-eat
The Israelites ate manna in the desert for forty years.
AHC
b. Die kleingoed kan op die sagte mat speel.
[(SBJ) Die kleingoed] [(Vaux) kan] [(ADV) op die sagte mat] [(Vinf) speel]
the little.ones can on the soft carpet play.INF
The little ones can play on the soft carpet.
AHC
c. Op daardie oomblik het die kaptein se gesig 'n jeugdige glans gekry.
[(ADV) Op daardie oomblik] [(Vaux) het] [(SBJ) die kaptein se gesig] [(PRED) 'n jeugdige glans] [Vpst.ptcp) gekry]
on that moment have.AUX the captain GEN face a youthful shine PST.PTCP-get
At that moment, the captain's face got a youthful glow.
AHC
d. Voorlopig gaan ons net 'n woonstel huur.
[(ADV) Voorlopig] [(Vaux) gaan] [(SBJ) ons] [(ADV) net] [(OBJ) 'n woonstel] [(Vprs) huur]
provisionally go.PRS we only a flat rent.INF
For the time being, we are only going to rent a flat.
AHC

In the case of multiple non-main verbs, only one will occupy the second position of the declarative main clause, whereas the others will be found adjacent to the main verb at the right edge of the clause. The order of non-main and main verbs is set out in the section Ordering of main and non-main verbs at the right edge.

[+] Verb second in WH interrogatives

In WH interrogatives, the first position of the clause is occupied by an interrogative element – an interrogative pronoun like wie?who or wat?what, or an interrogative adverb like waar?where, wanneer?when or hoe?how. The main verb, if there are no non-main verbs in the clause, or else one of the non-main verbs will occupy the second position of the clause. This is followed by the subject, other verb complements and adverbials, before the main verb and remaining non-main verbs are found at the right edge. These options are exemplified in (7).

Example 7

a. Wie het jy so laat op kantoor gesien?
[(OBJ) Wie] [(Vaux) het] [(SBJ) jy] [(ADV) so laat] [(ADV) op kantoor] [(Vpst-ptcp) gesien]
whom have.AUX you so late on office PST.PTCP-see
Who did you see so late at the office?
b. Wat kan ons hieroor sê?
[(OBJ) Wat] [(Vaux) kan] [(SBJ) ons] [(ADV) hieroor] [(Vinf) sê]
what can.AUX we this.over say.INF
What can we say about this?
c. Hoe gaan dit met die kinders?
[(ADV) Hoe] [(Vprs) gaan] [(SBJ) dit] [(ADV) met die kinders]
how go.PRS it with the children
How are the children?
d. Wanneer kom die skool uit?
[(ADV) Wanneer] [(Vprs) kom] [(SBJ) die skool] [(PART) uit]
when come.PRS the school out
When does the school finish?

If the subject of the clause is the element being asked about, then the interrogative subject pronoun (wie?who? if human and wat?what? if non-human) occupies the first position in the clause, which means that only other complements or adverbials, if any, will follow the main or non-main verb in second position. The examples in (8) show the subject interrogative options.

Example 8

a. Wie kruip daar agter die muur weg?
[(SBJ) Wie] [(Vprs) kruip] [(ADV) daar agter die muur] [(PART) weg]
who crawl.PRS there behind the wall away
Who hides there behind the wall?
b. Wat gebeur vanaand by die skool?
[(SBJ) Wat] [(Vprs) gebeur] [(ADV) vanaand] [(ADV) by die skool]
what happen.PRS tonight at the school
What happens tonight at the school?
[+] Inversion in YES/NO interrogatives

YES/NO interrogatives in Afrikaans are formed through inversion of subject and the verb that would otherwise occupy the second position. This is the main verb in the case of the examples in (9), and a non-main verb in the case of the examples in (10). The verb comes to occupy the first position in the YES/NO interrogatives, and is followed immediately by the subject, while the remainder of the sentence is not affected and has the same word order as the declarative counterpart would have.

Example 9

a. Is jy seker?
[(Vprs) is] [(SBJ) jy] [(PRED) seker]
be.PRS you certain
Are you certain?
b. Hardloop jy vanaand?
[(Vprs) hardloop] [(SBJ) jy] [(ADV) vanaand]
run.PRS you tonight
Do you run tonight?
c. Hoor jy my?
[(Vprs) hoor] [(SBJ) jy] [(OBJ) my]
hear.PRS you me
Do you hear me?
Example 10

a. Het julle die nuus gehoor?
[(Vaux) het] [(SBJ) julle [(OBJ) die nuus] [(Vpst-ptcp) gehoor]
have.AUX you the news PST.PTCP-hear
Have you heard the news?
b. Sal jy vir my skryf?
[(Vaux) sal] [(SBJ) jy] [(OBJ) vir my] [(Vinf) skryf]
shall.AUX you for me write.INF
Will you write to me?
[+] Verb-first in imperatives

The default imperative construction in Afrikaans has the main verb in clause initial position, followed by any complements and adverbials, but without an overt subject. The default imperative construction hardly ever makes use of non-main verbs. Typical examples are given in (11).

Example 11

a. Loop nou!
[(Vimp) loop] [(ADV) nou]
walk now
Now leave!
b. Maak die deur toe, asseblief!
[(Vimp) maak] [(OBJ) die deur] [(PART) toe] [(ADV) please]
make the door close please
Please close the door!
c. Roer jou!
[(Vimp) roer] [(OBJ) jou]
stir you
Hurry!
d. Doen eers jou huiswerk voor jy gaan speel.
[(Vimp) doen] [(ADV) eers] [(OBJ) jou huiswerk] [(ADV) voor jy gaan speel]
do.IMP first your homework before you go play
First do you homework before you go and play.

A more polite form of the interrogative uses a linking verb, especially gaango, but others linking verbs are also possible, together with the main verb. These verbs form complex initial verb clusters (Ponelis 1993, Robbers 1997), and cannot be separated in imperative contexts, as the examples in (12) illustrate.

Example 12

a. Gaan maak vir ons ʼn koffietjie, asseblief.
[(VP) [(Vlink) gaan] [(Vinf) maak]] [(INDOBJ) vir ons] [(DIROBJ) 'n koffietjie] [(ADV) asseblief]
go.IMP.make.INF for us a coffee.DIM please
Go and make us a cup of coffee please.
b. Gaan bêre eers jou tas en dan kom eet jy.
[(VP) [(Vlink) gaan] [(Vinf) bêre]] [(ADV) eers] [(OBJ) jou tas] [(COORD) en] [(ADV) dan] [(VP) [(Vlink) kom] [(Vinf) eet]] [(SBJ) jy]
go.IMP put.away.INF first your suitcase and then come.IMP eat.INF you
First go and put away your suitcase, and then you come and eat.
c. Kom sit gerus.
[(VP) [(Vlink) Kom] [(Vinf) sit]] [(ADV) gerus]
come.IMP sit.INF easily
Feel free to sit down.
d. Loop spoel daai vuil kol dadelik uit.
[(VP) [(Vlink) loop] [(Vinf) spoel]] [(OBJ) daai vuil kol] [(ADV) dadelik] [(PART) uit]
walk.IMP rinse.INF that dirty stain immediately out
Go and rinse that stain immediately.

There is variation in non-imperative contexts as to whether the complex initial is maintained, or whether it is divided by verbal complements and adverbials to revert to the regular word order of non-main verb second, then non-verbal constituents, before the final verbal cluster at the right edge of the clause.

Negative commands are formed with the modal moeniemust.notdon't in the clause-initial position, followed by regular main clause syntax with non-verbal elements preceding the main verb in the final position, but consistent with the double negation of Afrikaans, a final negator nienot is positioned after the final verb. Negative commands are illustrated in (13).

Example 13

a. Moenie weggaan nie!
[(Vmod) moenie] [(Vinf) weggaan] [(NEG) nie]
must.not away.go NEG
Don't go away!
b. Moenie nou kyk nie!
[(Vmod) moenie] [(ADV) nou] [(Vinf) kyk] [(NEG) nie]
must.not now look.INF NEG
Don't look now!
c. Moenie my pla nie!
[(Vmod) moenie] [(OBJ) my] [(Vinf) pla] [(NEG) nie]
must.not me bother NEG
Don't bother me!
d. Moenie jou humeur so vinnig verloor nie!
[(Vmod) moenie] [(OBJ) jou humeur] [(ADV) so vinnig] [(Vinf) verloor] [(NEG) nie]
must.not your temper so quickly lose NEG
Don't lose your temper so quickly!
[+] Ordering of main and non-main verbs at the right edge of main clauses

When multiple verbs (a main and one or more non-main verbs) occur in a main clause, only one non-main verb occurs in the second position of the clause (or first position, in the case of YES/NO interrogatives and imperatives), while other verbs combine in a complex verb cluster at the right edge of the clause. The selection of a verb for the second position and the ordering of verbs in the final cluster are not free, but relatively set.

Taking the position of the main verb (irrespective of its morphological form) at the right edge as point of orientation, the only non-main verbs that typically follow it, are the past tense auxiliary hethave and the passive auxiliaries wordbecome (for the present tense) or isbe (for the past tense). These relations are illustrated by the examples in (14), where it is also shown that Afrikaans allows the combination of the past tense and passive auxiliary, in which case the past tense auxiliary follows the passive auxiliary.

Example 14

a. Ons kan hierdie tragedie nog voorkom.
ons [(Vmod) kan] hierdie tragedie nog [(VP) [(Vinf) voorkom]]
we can.AUX this tragedy still prevent.INF
We can still prevent this tragedy.
[Main verb at right edge]
b. 'n Groter tragedie sou die volgende dag afgespeel het.
'n groter tragedie [(Vmod) sou] die volgende dag [(VP) [(Vpst-ptcp) afgespeel] [(Vaux) het]]
a bigger tragedy would.AUX the following day off-PST.PTCP-play have.AUX
A bigger tragedy would have occured the following day.
[Main verb at right edge, followed by past tense auxiliary]
c. Hierdie tragedie kan dalk nog voorkom word.
hierdie tragedie [(Vmod) kan] dalk nog [(VP) [(Vpst-ptcp) voorkom] [(Vpass) word]]
this tragedy can.AUX perhaps still prevent.PST.PTCP become.AUX
This tragedy can perhaps still be prevented.
[Main verb at right edge, followed by passive auxiliary]
d. Moontlik kon hierdie tragedie voorkom gewees het.
moontlik [(Vmod) kon] hierdie tragedie [(VP) [(Vpst-ptcp) voorkom] [(Vpass) gewees] [(Vaux) het]]
perhaps could.AUX this tragedy prevent.PST.PTCP PST.PTCP-be have.AUX
This tragedy could perhaps have been avoided.
[Main verb at right edge, followed by passive auxiliary, then past tense auxiliary]

Afrikaans does not conventionally permit deviation from the ordering of the passive and past tense auxiliary as set out here.

Preceding the main verb are modal auxiliaries, which are the first verbs that occur in the verb cluster at the right edge of main clauses when present, while other non-main verbs, specifically the linking verbs, are positioned immediately before the main verb when present, and after any possible modal verbs. These ordering relations are illustrated by the examples in (15).

Example 15

a. Na sy herstel, kan hy in April begin speel.
na sy herstel [(Vmod) kan] hy in April [(VP) [(Vlink) begin] [(Vinf) speel]]
after his recovery can.AUX he in April begin.INF play.INF
After his recovery, he can begin to play in April.
[Main verb at right edge, preceded by linking verb]
b. Hy sal in April weer kan speel.
hy [(Vmod) sal] in April weer [(VP) [(Vmod) kan] [(Vinf) speel]]
he will.AUX in April again can.AUX play.INF
He will be able to play in April again.
[Main verb at right edge, preceded by modal verb]
c. Hy sal in April weer kan begin speel.
hy [(Vmod) sal] in April weer [(VP) [(Vmod) kan] [(Vlink) begin] [(Vinf) speel]]
he will.AUX in April again can.AUX begin.INF play.INF
He will be able to begin playing in April again.
[Main verb at right edge, preceded by modal auxiliary, then linking verb]

If there is a single non-main verb in a main clause, that auxiliary verb will occupy the second position of the clause, as illustrated in (14a) and (15a). When more than one non-main verb occurs, the modal auxiliaries are the first to be selected for the second position, leaving all other non-main verbs (including possible further modal auxiliaries) to cluster at the right edge of the clause. There are further complications with the ordering of multiple modal auxiliaries, which are explained in the section on modal chains. In one construction, it is even possible to leave the auxiliary hethave in the second position, with the modal located at the right edge as part of the final verbal cluster, as set out in the section on the perfect with internal modal construction.

If there are no modal auxiliaries, then linking verbs take the second position, and if there are not linking verbs either, then passive auxiliaries take precedence before the past tense auxiliary for the second position.

[+] Verb ordering in dependent clauses

Dependent clauses in Afrikaans are verb-final. In the canonical case, there is no verb in the second position of the dependent clause. This applies to the main verb and all non-main verbs in the clause. It also applies to the full spectrum of dependent clauses, including finite adverbial clauses, as in (16), finite relative clauses as in (17), finite complement clauses, as in (18), and infinitive clauses, as in (19).

No further ordering issues arise if there is only a single main verb in such dependent clauses, as exemplified by the (a) example in each case below. When one or more non-main verbs accompany the main verb, then more complex ordering issues arise. These correspond largely to the ordering patterns associated with the right edge of the main clauses, except that one of the non-verbs is selected to occupy the second position of such clauses. Otherwise, the same ordering applies to the right edge of the dependent clauses as to the right edge of main clauses: the past tense auxiliary hethave and the passive auxiliaries wordbecome and isbe will follow the main verb, while linking verbs will immediately precede the main verb, and modal auxiliaries will be the first non-main verbs in the final verb clusters, as illustrated by the examples in (16) to (19).

Example 16

a. Ongeag of hy dit noodwendig self begryp...
Ongeag of hy dit noodwendig self [(VP) [(Vpres) begryp]]
irrespective whether he it necessarily self understand.PRS
Irrespective of whether he necessarily understands it himself
[Main verb at right edge, no other verbs]
b. Ongeag of hy dit noodwendig self begryp het...
Ongeag of hy dit noodwendig self [(VP) [(Vpst-ptcp) begryp] [(Vaux) het]]
irrespective whether he it necessarily self understand.PST.PTCP have.AUX
Irrespective of whether he necessarily understood it himself
[Main verb at right edge, followed by past tense auxiliary]
c. Ongeag of hy dit noodwendig self kan begryp...
Ongeag of hy dit noodwendig self [(VP) [(Vaux) kan] [(Vinf) begryp]]
irrespective whether he it necessarily self can.AUX understand.INF
Irrespective of whether he can necessarily understand it himself
[Main verb at right edge, preceded by modal auxiliary]
d. Ongeag of hy dit ooit self sal begin begryp...
Ongeag of hy dit ooit self [(VP) [(Vaux) sal] [(Vlink) begin] [(Vinf) begryp]]
irrespective whether he it ever self will.AUX begin.INF understand.INF
Irrespective of whether he will ever begin to understand it himself
[Main verb at right edge, preceded by modal auxiliary and linking verb]
Example 17

a. Sy was een van daardie mense wat nooit kla nie.
Sy was een van daardie mense wat nooit [(VP) [(Vprs) kla]] nie.
she be.PST one of those people who never complain.PRS NEG
She was one of those people who never complain(ed).
[Main verb at right edge, no other verbs]
b. Sy was een van daardie mense wat nooit gekla het nie.
Sy was een van daardie mense wat nooit [(VP) [(Vpst-ptcp) gekla] [(Vaux) het]] nie.
she be.PST one of those people who never PST.PTCP-complain have.AUX NEG
She was one of those people who never complained.
[Main verb at right edge, followed by past tense auxiliary]
c. Sy was een van daardie mense wat nooit loop en kla nie.
Sy was een van daardie mense wat nooit [(VP) [(Vlink) loop] [(link) en] [(Vinf) kla]] nie.
she be.PST one of those people who never walk.PRS and complain.INF NEG
She was one of those people who never went on complaining.
[Main verb at right edge, preceded by linking verb]
Example 18

a. Ons hoop dat ons darem net-net slaag.
ons hoop dat ons darem net-net [(VP) [(Vprs) slaag]]
we hope.PRS COMP we but just-just pass.PRS
We hope that we will just barely pass.
[Main verb at right edge, no other verbs]
b. Ons vertrou dat ons darem geslaag het.
ons vertrou dat ons darem [(VP) [(Vpst-ptcp) geslaag] [(Vaux) het]]
we trust.PRS COMP we but PST-PTCP-pass have.AUX
We trust that we have nevertheless passed.
[Main verb at right edge, followed by past tense auxiliary]
c. Ons weet dat ons tog sal slaag.
ons weet dat ons tog [(VP) [(Vaux) sal] [(Vinf) slaag]]
we know.PRS COMP we nevertheless will.AUX pass.INF
We know that we will pass after all.
[Main verb at right edge, preceded by modal auxiliary]
Example 19

a. Jy benodig 'n minimum van 40% om die eksamen te slaag.
jy benodig 'n minimum van 40% om die eksamen [(VP) [(PTCL) te] [(Vinf) slaag]]
you need.PRS a minimum of 40% COMP the exam to pass.INF
You need a minimum of 40% to pass the exam.
[Main verb at right edge, no other verbs]
b. In daardie dae het ons 'n 50% sub-minimum benodig om die eksamen te geslaag het.
in daardie dae het ons 'n 50% sub-minimum benodig om die eksamen [(VP) [(PTCL) te] [(Vpst-ptcp) geslaag] [(Vaux.inf) het]]
in those days have.AUX we a 50% sub-minimum need.PST.PTCP COMP the exam to PST.PTCP-pass have.AUX.INF
In those days, we needed a sub-minimum of 50% to have passed the exam.
[Main verb at right edge, followed by past tense auxiliary]
c. Jy sal 'n sub-minimum van 40% benodig om die eksamen te kan slaag.
jy sal 'n sub-minimum van 40% benodig om die eksamen [(VP) [(PTCL) te] [(Vaux) kan] [(Vinf) slaag]]
you will.AUX a sub-minimum of 40% need.INF COMP the exam to can.AUX.INF pass.INF
You will need a sub-minimum of 40% to be able to pass the exam.
[Main verb at right edge, preceded by modal auxiliary]
d. Dit sal die MBK toelaat om die rentekoerse te kan begin verlaag.
dit sal die MBK toelaat om die rentekoerse [(VP) [(PTCL) te] [(Vaux) kan] [(Vinf) begin] [(Vinf) verlaag]]
it will.AUX the MPC allow.INF COMP the interest.rates to can.AUX.INF begin.INF lower.INF
It will allow the MPC to be able to begin to lower the interest rates.
[Main verb at right edge, preceded by modal auxiliary and linking verb]
References:
  • Ponelis, F1993The development of Afrikaans.ReeksP. Lang
  • Robbers, K.B.M1997Non-finite verbal complements in Afrikaans: a comparative approach.Holland Academic Graphics. Universiteit van Amsterdam.Thesis
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