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Velar fricative alternation with velar plosive
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In Afrikaans the voiceless velar fricative /x/ in some rare instances is replaced by the voiced plosive [g].

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    The most well-known, and widely used example of this process is [bærgə], the plural form of berg/bɛrx/[bærx]mountain. Similarly, burger(s)citizen(s) regularly is pronounced as /bœrgər/, also present in nouns denoting inhabitants of places with burg/bœrx/ as final constituent, as in Johannesburger(s)/juɦɑnəsbœrgər(s)/, thus showing /g/ in the preferred position "stressed short vowel + [r] __ [ə]. This to happens in other place names, for example Fouriesburger(s), Rustenburger(s), Sasolburger(s), Middelburger(s), Lichtenburger(s), Ventersburger(s), Winburger(s), Pietermaritzburger(s), Boksburger(s), Trompsburger(s).

    The alternation /x/ ~ [g] in burgemeester[bœrxəmiəstər] ~ [bœrgərmiəstər] is interesting. In the former, burge - not resembling an existing word - has [x]; in the latter, burger - as above - does, and therefore complies with the ingeburgerde uitspraak.

    Only a small number of other cases exist in Afrikaans, of which the fricative /x/ in derivations of the adverb erg/ɛrx/[ærx]bad (adverb) becomes a voiced plosive /g/ whenever followed by schwa. Examples are:

    • erge/ɛrxə/['ærgə]bad (attributive adjective)
    • erger/ɛrxər/['ærgər]worse (comparitave form of the attributive adjective)
    • vererger/fərɛrxər/[fər'ærgər]exacerbated (verb)
    • ergernis/ɛrxərnəs/['ærgərnəs]annoyance (noun)

    In a small subgroup of words containing /ɔ/ in the relevant phonetic context the alternation of /x/ with [g] is present, viz. borge[bɔrgə] plural of borg/bɔrx/sponsor, verborge (from verberg)/fərbɔrxə/[fər'bɔrgə]hide, morge[mɔrgə] plural of morg/mɔrx/morgan and gevolge[xəfɔlgə]consequences (also ingevolge[ənxəfɔlgə]in terms of). Evidence of underlying /x/ in the latter two cases is found in volg/fɔlx/follow, from which they are derived. A similar case in question is the alternation of /x/ with /g/ in sorg[sɔrx]care ~ besorger[bəsɔrgər]caretaker.

    Le Roux and Pienaar (Le Roux, T.H.; Pienaar, P. de V. 1927), also (Le Roux, T.H.; Pienaar, P. de V. 1971) mention the archaic forms, not likely to be heard any more: wilge(r)boom/vəlxə(r)bom/[vəlgə(r)buəm]willow tree as well as terge/tɛrxə/['tærgə]to-tease from terg[tærx]. nege/nexə/['niəgə]nine is still heard in the language use of older people.

    References:
    • Le Roux, T.H. & Pienaar, P. de V1927Afrikaanse fonetiek.Juta
    • Le Roux, T.H. & Pienaar, P. de V1971Uitspraakwoordeboek van Afrikaans.Van Schaik
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