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mis-
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The negative prefix mis- derives nouns on the basis of other nouns. Derivations with mis- always indicate disapproval. An example is rekkenbill > misrekkenmiscalculation.

Note that there is another prefix mis- that derives verbs.

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[+] General properties

Examples of derivations with mis- are listed below:

Table 1
Base form Derivation
begrypunderstanding misbegrypmisunderstanding
ferstânmind misferstânmisunderstanding
gebrûkuse misbrûkabuse
die(d)act misdie(d)crime
stapstep misstaplapse
rekkenbill misrekkenmiscalculation
slachstroke misslachmishit
In Frisian mis also exists as an independent adjective, meaning wrong, of target, from which the prefix must have been grammaticalized; it should therefore rather be considered a prefixoid. It can be difficult to distinguish between the prefix and the adjective if besides the derivation with the prefix mis-, one also finds a phrase containing the adjective mis. However, apart from a stress difference and the occurrence of inflectional suffixes with the adjective, there is often also a slight difference in meaning. Examples are listed below:


Table 2
Derivation Phrase
missetlapse misse setwrong move
miswurdindecent word mis wurdwrong word
misdeilost day misse deiwrong day
misreismiscarriage misse reiswrong carriage
[+] Phonological properties

The prefix is pronounced as [mɪs]. The stress is on the prefix, for instance geBRÛKuse > MISbrûkabuse. In this example one can also truncation of the prefix ge- in the base word gebrûkuse. It should be noted that in the phrases with the adjective mis, the main stress is not on the adjective, but on the noun.

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Literature

This topic is based on Hoekstra (1998:69-70).

References:
  • Hoekstra, Jarich1998Fryske wurdfoarmingLjouwertFryske Akademy
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