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kâld-
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The unproductive prefix kâld- derives nouns from other nouns. It can, however, only be attached to the nouns broerbrother and sustersister. Derivations with kâld- refer to a brother or a sister who either has a different father or mother than oneself. An example is broerbrother > kâldbroerhalf-brother.

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[+] General properties

The prefix kâld- can only be combined with the words broerbrother and sustersister, resulting in the words kâldbroerhalf-brother and kâldsusterhalf-sister. Hence, this prefix is clearly unproductive. One can use these words to refer to a brother or a sister who either has a different father or mother than oneself.

This prefix must have been grammaticalized from the adjective kâldcold, which may also have the metaphorical meaning 'unrelated' or 'remotely related' (particularly within families; see Veen (1984-2011 s.v. kâld, 9)). It must therefore be considered to be a prefixoid. Alternative prefixes with the same function are heal-, kalf- and pot-. While heal- is the commonly used prefix, kâld-, kalf- and pot- can be considered as being obsolete.

[+] Phonological properties

The prefix is pronounced as [kɔ:t]. In derivations it bears the stress, e.g. KÂLDsusterhalf-sister.

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Literature

This topic is based on Hoekstra (1998:65).

References:
  • Hoekstra, Jarich1998Fryske wurdfoarmingLjouwertFryske Akademy
  • Veen, Klaas F. van der et al1984-2011Wurdboek fan de Fryske taal - Woordenboek der Friese taalFryske Akademy
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