• Dutch
  • Frisian
  • Afrikaans
Show full table of contents
-oan
quickinfo

The suffix -oan derives adverbs from other adverbs, especially from adverbs denoting time. An example is stadichslow > stadichoanslowly.

The suffix -oan can also derive adjectives from other adjectives.

readmore

The suffix -oan derives adverbs from adverbs, especially from adverbs denoting time. Examples are given in the table below:

Table 1
Base form Derivation
stadichslow stadichoanslowly
alweragain alweroancontinually
súntsjesquiet súntsjesoanquietly
fierderssubsequent fierdersoansubsequently
jimmeralways jimmeroancontinually
fuortimmediately fuortoanfrom now on
In adverbs of time denoting always or gradually, the suffix -oan has a competitor in the suffix -wei, which can sometimes replace -oan. The different derivations do not have exactly the same meaning: -wei denotes the complete interval (of time), while -oan denotes a direction or continuation in time. Examples are stadichweislowly vs stadichoangradually and jimmerweiconstantly vs jimmeroancontinually.
[hide extra information]
x Aloan en alweiall the time

Frisian has one fixed expression which uses -oan and -wei next to each other: aloan en alweiall the time. This expression denotes a strong durative aspect. The construction is often used without al-, examples are given below:

Example 1

Dat bern seurde mar oan en wei om in koekje
that child whined but on and way for a cookie
That child kept whining for a cookie
It reinde dy deis mar oan en wei
it rained that day but on and way
It kept raining all day long

In combination with alall, ever, the derivation from a comparative with -oan makes the denotation even stronger. For example: al slûgeroanstill getting sleepier, al minderoanstill getting worse. Alternative constructions are aloan slûgerstill getting sleepier, aloan minderstill getting worse.

Derivations in -oan can also be added to noun phrases or preposition phrases denoting time, to denote a continuation of this time. For example: alle dagen weroanevery day again and yn 't earstoan/lêstoanat the beginning/end.
[hide extra information]
x Wind directions

-oan can also be added to nouns indicating wind directions, denoting a continuation in space: noardnorth > noardoannorthwards, súdsouth > súdoansouthwards, westwest > westoanwestwards and easteast > eastoaneastwards.

[hide extra information]
x Literature

This topic is based on Hoekstra (1998:163). More details about the suffix -oan can be found in Hoekstra (1989) and Tamminga (1963:185-187).

References:
  • Hoekstra, Jarich1989It wurdt tsjusterderoanFriesch Dagblad06-05Taalsnipels 105
  • Hoekstra, Jarich1998Fryske wurdfoarmingLjouwertFryske Akademy
  • Tamminga, Douwe Annes1963Op 'e taelhelling. Losse trochsneden fan Frysk taellibben. IBoalsertA.J. Osinga
Suggestions for further reading ▼
phonology
  • Dutch
  • Frisian
  • Afrikaans
    Show more ▼
    morphology
    • Dutch
    • Frisian
    • Afrikaans
    • -zaam
      [56%] Dutch > Morphology > Word formation > Derivation > Adjectives > Adjectival suffixes
    • -erig
      [55%] Dutch > Morphology > Word formation > Derivation > Adjectives > Adjectival suffixes
    • -erwijs
      [55%] Dutch > Morphology > Word formation > Derivation > Adverbs > Adverbial suffixes
    • -(e)lijk
      [55%] Dutch > Morphology > Word formation > Derivation > Adjectives > Adjectival suffixes
    • -ig
      [55%] Dutch > Morphology > Word formation > Derivation > Adjectives > Adjectival suffixes
    • -oan
      [70%] Frisian > Morphology > Word formation > Derivation > Suffixation > Adjectival suffixes > Adjective as base
    • -(e)lings
      [63%] Frisian > Morphology > Word formation > Derivation > Suffixation > Adverbial suffixes > Noun as base
    • -ich
      [63%] Frisian > Morphology > Word formation > Derivation > Suffixation > Adjectival suffixes > Noun as base
    • -wei
      [63%] Frisian > Morphology > Word formation > Derivation > Suffixation > Adverbial suffixes > Adverb as base
    • -sk
      [61%] Frisian > Morphology > Word formation > Derivation > Suffixation > Adjectival suffixes > Noun as base
      Show more ▼
      syntax
      • Dutch
      • Frisian
      • Afrikaans
      • 8.2.2. VP adverbs
        [56%] Dutch > Syntax > Adjectives and Adjective Phrases > 8 Adverbial use of the adjective phrase > 8.2. Modification in the clausal domain: clause and VP adverbs
      • 8.2.1. Clausal adverbs
        [55%] Dutch > Syntax > Adjectives and Adjective Phrases > 8 Adverbial use of the adjective phrase > 8.2. Modification in the clausal domain: clause and VP adverbs
      • 1.3.3. Relational adjectives
        [54%] Dutch > Syntax > Adjectives and Adjective Phrases > 1 Characteristics and classification > 1.3. A semantic classification
      • 4.1.1. Overview
        [53%] Dutch > Syntax > Adjectives and Adjective Phrases > 4 Projection of adjective phrases III: Comparison > 4.1. Equative, comparative and superlative formation
      • 5.2. Attributively used adjectives versus other prenominal elements
        [53%] Dutch > Syntax > Adjectives and Adjective Phrases > 5 Attributive use of the adjective phrase
      Show more ▼
      cite
      print