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Stress shift towards word-final position
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A strong tendency is present for primary stress, especially in multisyllabic monomorphemes that have originally had stress on the initial syllable, to shift towards the end of such words, mainly to the final syllable, except in cases where this syllable is unstressed according to the Main Stress Rule of Afrikaans. Such stress shift is important independent evidence in support of this rule (see Overview of the Main Stress Rules of Afrikaans. Wissing describes a variety of such stress shifts towards the end of the word Afrikaans on the move.

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    In the Extra below, a representative number of examples of this phenomenon is given. Note that most of these examples are recognised by authoritative dictionaries, such as the pronunciation dictionary (Le Roux, T.H.; Pienaar, P. de V. 1971) and HAT.

    Some of the cases mentioned in the Extra below are, however, more recent shifts, noted personally by the author . See Notes below for discussion.


    Figure 1

    [click image to enlarge]

    1. The position of stress in some of these words is in a state of flux; in some cases stress (still) varies between speakers, and even within the same speaker. This relates especially to ewenaar, kiepersol, majesteit, samoerai, stadion, uniform.
    2. Stress on the final syllable in handhaaf, waarsku is mostly heard in Coloured Afrikaans.
    3. Items consisting of more than three syllables, like akkusatief, inchoatief, infinitief, nominatief, have word-final stress, which is in accordance with the MSR, that states that primary stress is final in words ending on closed syllables (see Short -oe in monomorphemes . Note that specifically these words are used in the case of Dutch as examples of exceptions to the Three-syllable Window Principle: "Primary stress can only fall on one of the last three syllables of a monomorphemic word" - see (Booij, Geert 1995)(Kager, R. 1989), (Trommelen, M.; Zonneveld, W. 1989). In Afrikaans, in contrast, the relevant equivalents are exceptions neither to the MSR of Afrikaans nor to the more general Three-syllable Window Principle.
    4. The surname Woltemade has recently received penultimate stress; as is the case with many proper names of Germanic origin it originally exhibited initial stress.
    5. There is a growing tendency in Afrikaans for the stress in words ending on <kus> (as in medikus) to shift to the final syllable, cf. also longer words like akademikus and historikus, that originally had antepenultimate stress, similar to other <-i-> words (see Short -ie in monomorphemes).

    References:
    • Booij, Geert1995The phonology of DutchOxfordOxford University Press
    • Kager, René1989A Metrical Theory of Stress and Destressing in English and DutchDordrechtForis
    • Trommelen, Mieke & Zonneveld, Wim1989Klemtoon en metrische fonologieMuiderbergCoutinho
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