• Dutch
  • Frisian
  • Afrikaans
Show full table of contents
Pseudo-participles
quickinfo

In this section, the focus is on a particular type of adjective with a PP complement, namely pseudo-participles. Pseudo-participles are adjectives which have the same form as past participles, but for which no corresponding verbs exist. In Afrikaans, they can be identified by the presence of (ostensible) prefixes before the stem, such as ge-, be- or ver-. However, since prefixes do not occur in past participles if some other component than the first is stressed (for example, het ondergrawehave undermined), pseudo-participles may also take on the morphonological form of such a construction. Examples of both categories are given below:

Example 1

verwant aan die flambojante paradysvoëls
related to the flamboyant paradise birds
Example 2

onderhewig aan sekere voorwaardes
subject to certain conditions
readmore
[+] Read more

Pseudo-participles which take PPs as a complement, formally resemble the past participle of a putative verb, either through the presence of a prefix, or the corresponding morphonological form of such a participle, if a prefix is not required. However, they have no verbal function as main verbs, and only occur as adjectives, as in the following examples:

Example 3

Die party is gekant teen die voorgestelde wetgewing.
the party is opposed against the proposed legislation
The party is opposed to the proposed legislation.
Example 4

Haar aanstelling is onderworpe aan 'n proeftydperk van een jaar.
Her appointment is subject to a trial period of one year.

Relics from 17th century Dutch strong verb past participles form a distinctive class in this category. While the "regularised" pendants of pseudo-particles such as bedag (op)thoughtful (of), betrokke (by)involved (with) or ingenome (met)delighted (with), namely bedinkconsidered, betrekinvolved and ingeneemtaken in respectively represent the true past participles in verbal constructions, the strong past participles are restricted to adjectival functions, as illustrated below:

Example 5

gewaarsku om uiters bedag op seestrome te wees
warned PART extremely attentive on sea.currents to be
warned to be extremely cautious of sea currents
Example 6

Beide lande is nou betrokke by die politieke proses.
both countries are closely involved at the political process
Both countries are closely involved with the political process.
Example 7

Die aanklaer was ingenome met die uitspraak.
The prosecutor was delighted with the verdict.

As regards linear order, the adjective is normally placed to the left of the PP, but right placement may be favoured by factors such as emphasis, the use of R-pronouns, or of a subordinate or relative clause. Some examples of right placement follow:

Example 8

Die groep was glad nie by die ontvoerings betrokke nie.
the group was at.all not at the abductions involved NEG
The group was not at all involved with the abductions.
Example 9

Wees daarop bedag.
be R-on attentive
Be prepared for it.
Example 10

dat hulle teen die betoging gekant is
that they against the demonstration opposed are
that they are opposed to the demonstration
Example 11

materiaal wat moontlik aan handelsmerkwette onderhewig is
material which possibly to trademark.laws subject is
material which is possibly subject to trademark laws
References:
    Suggestions for further reading ▼
    phonology
    • Dutch
    • Frisian
    • Afrikaans
    Show more ▼
    morphology
    • Dutch
    • Frisian
    • Afrikaans
    Show more ▼
    syntax
    • Dutch
    • Frisian
    • Afrikaans
    • 1.3.1.2. Inf-nominalization (Infinitival nominals)
      [78%] Dutch > Syntax > Nouns and Noun Phrases > 1 Characterization and classification > 1.3. Derivation of nouns > 1.3.1. Deverbal nouns
    • 1.3.1.3. Ing-nominalization
      [77%] Dutch > Syntax > Nouns and Noun Phrases > 1 Characterization and classification > 1.3. Derivation of nouns > 1.3.1. Deverbal nouns
    • 2.2.3.3. Ing-nominalizations
      [77%] Dutch > Syntax > Nouns and Noun Phrases > 2 Projection of noun phrases I: complementation > 2.2. Prepositional and nominal complements > 2.2.3. Deverbal nouns
    • 4.1. Adpositional phrases used as arguments
      [77%] Dutch > Syntax > Adpositions and adpositional phrases > 4 Syntactic uses of the adpositional phrase
    • 2.2.3.4. Ge-nominalizations
      [77%] Dutch > Syntax > Nouns and Noun Phrases > 2 Projection of noun phrases I: complementation > 2.2. Prepositional and nominal complements > 2.2.3. Deverbal nouns
    • Inflection and derivation
      [80%] Afrikaans > Syntax > Verbs and Verb Phrases > 1. Characterization and classification
    • Mood
      [79%] Afrikaans > Syntax > Verbs and Verb Phrases > 1. Characterization and classification
    • Inf-nominalization (Infinitival nominals)
      [78%] Afrikaans > Syntax > Nouns and Noun Phrases > 1. Characterization and classification > 1.3 Derivation of nouns > 1.3.1. Deverbal nouns
    • Complementation
      [78%] Afrikaans > Syntax > Adjective Phrases
    • Root semantics
      [78%] Afrikaans > Syntax > Verbs and Verb Phrases > 1. Characterization and classification > 1.5. Tense, modality and aspect > 1.5.2. Modality
    Show more ▼
    cite
    print
    This is a beta version.