• Dutch
  • Frisian
  • Afrikaans
Show full table of contents
-ig (verbal)
quickinfo

-ig (/əγ/) is a Germanic unproductive cohering suffix found in verbs. Often the base is nominal (e.g. pijnigto hurt < pijnpain). There is also a number of cases like beschadigento damage (< schadedamage) where -ig co-occurs with a verbalizing prefix such as be-: here it is unclear whether it is the suffix that determines the category of the whole or the prefix (or rather that the combination should be analyzed as a circumfix).

readmore

-ig (/əγ/) is a Germanic suffix found in verbs. It is unproductive Haas (1993: 347-48), Haeseryn (1997: 12.2.1.4), Smessaert (2013: 58). For various formations it is clear that the basis is nominal, e.g. pijnigto hurt (< pijnpain), stenigto lapidate, to stone (< steenstone), eindigto end (< eind(e)end) and kruisigto crucify (< kruiscross). It is less clear for cases such as heiligento sanctify (< heilhail): analysis as conversion of the derived adjective heiligholy (with adjectival -ig) seems to be more appropriate. The same seems to hold for cases such as zondigto sin (< zondesin or zondigsinfull).

The vowel in -ig (/əγ/) is schwa, so it never bears stress. The suffix is cohering: syllabification does not respect the morphological structure. If the base ends in schwa, it is deleted as a consequence of prevocalic schwa-deletion: zondigsinful (< zondesin).

The suffix also co-occurs with verbalizing prefixes such as be-, e.g. in bezichtigto view (< zichtview; *zichtig does not exist) and beledigto insult (< leedsorrow) (ledigempty does exist but is semantically unrelated). vereeuwigento immortalise, on the other hand, seems de-adjectival (eeuwigeternal) rather than denominal (cf. eeuwcentury).

References:
  • Haas, Wim de & Trommelen, Mieke1993Morfologisch handboek van het Nederlands. Een overzicht van de woordvormingSDU Uitgeverij
  • Haeseryn, Walter, Romijn, Kirsten, Geerts, Guido, Rooij, Jaap de & Toorn, Maarten C. van den1997Algemene Nederlandse spraakkunstGroningenNijhoff
  • Smessaert, Hans2013Basisbegrippen morfologieBasisbegrippen taalkundeLeuven/Den HaagACCO
Suggestions for further reading ▼
phonology
  • Dutch
  • Frisian
  • Afrikaans
Show more ▼
morphology
  • Dutch
  • Frisian
  • Afrikaans
  • ge...te
    [73%] Dutch > Morphology > Word formation > Derivation > Nouns > Nominal prefixes
  • -ling
    [72%] Dutch > Morphology > Word formation > Derivation > Nouns > Nominal suffixes
  • -er (nominal)
    [71%] Dutch > Morphology > Word formation > Derivation > Nouns > Nominal suffixes
  • -heid
    [70%] Dutch > Morphology > Word formation > Derivation > Nouns > Nominal suffixes
  • -ier
    [70%] Dutch > Morphology > Word formation > Derivation > Nouns > Nominal suffixes
  • Ellipsis
    [71%] Frisian > Morphology > Inflection > Adjectives
  • -en
    [70%] Frisian > Morphology > Word formation > Derivation > Suffixation > Adjectival suffixes > Noun as base
  • -en
    [69%] Frisian > Morphology > Word formation > Derivation > Suffixation > Adverbial suffixes > Adverb as base
  • In prenominal position
    [69%] Frisian > Morphology > Inflection > Adjectives
  • Cardinal numbers
    [68%] Frisian > Morphology > Inflection > Numerals
Show more ▼
syntax
  • Dutch
  • Frisian
  • Afrikaans
  • 3.2.1.4. The krijgen-passive
    [67%] Dutch > Syntax > Verbs and Verb Phrases > 3 Projection of verb phrases II:Verb frame alternations > 3.2. Alternations involving the external argument > 3.2.1. Passivization
  • 6.4.2. Zijn + bare infinitive (absentive construction)
    [67%] Dutch > Syntax > Verbs and Verb Phrases > 6 Projection of verb phrases IIIc:Complements of non-main verbs > 6.4. Non-main verbs selecting a bare infinitive
  • 3.2.1. Passivization
    [67%] Dutch > Syntax > Verbs and Verb Phrases > 3 Projection of verb phrases II:Verb frame alternations > 3.2. Alternations involving the external argument
  • 1.3.1.4. Circumpositions
    [67%] Dutch > Syntax > Adpositions and adpositional phrases > 1 Characteristics and classification > 1.3. A semantic classification of adpositional phrases > 1.3.1. Spatial adpositions
  • 3.2.1.1. General properties of passives
    [66%] Dutch > Syntax > Verbs and Verb Phrases > 3 Projection of verb phrases II:Verb frame alternations > 3.2. Alternations involving the external argument > 3.2.1. Passivization
  • Mood
    [66%] Afrikaans > Syntax > Verbs and Verb Phrases > 1. Characterization and classification
  • Inflection and derivation
    [64%] Afrikaans > Syntax > Verbs and Verb Phrases > 1. Characterization and classification
  • Inf-nominalization (Infinitival nominals)
    [64%] Afrikaans > Syntax > Nouns and Noun Phrases > 1. Characterization and classification > 1.3 Derivation of nouns > 1.3.1. Deverbal nouns
  • Root semantics
    [64%] Afrikaans > Syntax > Verbs and Verb Phrases > 1. Characterization and classification > 1.5. Tense, modality and aspect > 1.5.2. Modality
  • Tense
    [64%] Afrikaans > Syntax > Verbs and Verb Phrases > 1. Characterization and classification > 1.5. Tense, modality and aspect
Show more ▼
cite
print