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-emint
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The suffix -emint is a French suffix originally and therefore it can be found in quite a number of French loans. Examples are amusemintamusement or isolemintisolation. It is especially related to non-native verbs ending in -ear(je). However, there are also a number of Germanic nouns and verbs to which the suffix can be attached. A nominal example is kaakjaw which becomes kakemintthe lower and upper jaw and a verbal base is driigjeto threaten, from which may be derived drigemintthreat. Irrespective of the original language, Frisian nouns in -emint are always neuter.

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[+] Non-native bases

Originally, -emint is a non-native suffix, cf. French -ement. In general, the derivations are neuter words that have a plural in -en. A lot of derivations can be related to verbs that contain the suffix -ear. Here are some illustrative pairs:


Table 1
Corresponding verbs Derivation
traktearjeto treat traktemintwage
amusearjeto amuse amusemintamusement
sinjalearjeto witness sinjalemintdescription
mankearjeto lack mankemintbreakdown
isolearjeto isolate isolemintisolation
abonnearjeto subscribe abonnemintsubscription
bombardearjeto bomb bombardemintbombardment

In some cases there are no related words in Frisian. Examples are departemintdepartment, evenemintevent and parlemintparliament.

[+] Native verbal bases

There are also a few derivations in -emint that have a native verbal base:


Table 2
Base form Derivation
preuveljeto mumble preuveleminttalk, muttered prayer
bûg(j)eto bow bûgemintbow
driigjeto threaten drigemintthreat
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x Possible input for new verbs

An interesting phenomenon is that these nouns in -emint can be input to form verbs again. We then get drigemintsjeto threaten (< drigemintthreat), bûgemintsjeto bow(< bûgemintbow) and preuvelemintsjeto talk (< preuveleminttalk, muttered prayer). At first sight, these formations seem to be simple conversions of noun to verb. However, there are good reasons to consider them as derivations with an independent verbal suffix -emint. The question is further dealt with in the topic on -emint which derives verbs from verbs.

[+] Noun as base

The suffix -emint may also be attached to nouns, mostly native or felt as native. In some cases, this results in a collective noun:


Table 3
Base form Derivation
arktools arkeminttools, machine
troanjeface troanjemintface
kaakjaw kakemintthe lower and upper jaw

A substitution may be observed in fizelemintface, which exists next to fizelemy, adapted from French fysionomie.

In special contexts, and despite its collective character, the derivations may be pluralized. An example is de kakeminten fan dy smjuntenthe jaws of those scoundrels.

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x Other suffixes that form collective nouns

The suffix -emint is not the only one that forms collective nouns. Comparable suffixes are:

  • -boel: hokshed > hokkeboelsheds;
  • -brol: papierpaper > papierbrolpapers;
  • -brot: krantnewspaper > krantebrotnewspapers;
  • -dom: minskhuman > minskdomhumanity;
  • -guod: fûgelbird > fûgelguodbirds;
  • -heid: minskhuman being > minskheidhumanity;
  • -spul: bistanimal > bistespulanimals;
  • -wurk: skonkleg > skonkwurklegs.

In some other cases, the suffix just seems to have a strengthening function, for instance in soartemintkind next to soartekind and donderemint next to donder. The latter pair are used in the expression immen op syn --- jaanto give someone a beating.

[+] Allomorphy

The suffix -emint has allomorphs in -amint (temperaminttemperament), -issemint (arrondissemintdistrict and -mint (ynstrumintinstrument). These allomorphs have not penetrated to native bases (although the WFT dictionary Veen (1984-2011) has a quote with kakesemintjaws).

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x

This topic is mainly based on Hoekstra (1998:98) and De Haas and Trommelen (1993:266). See also Visser (2000:182-183), especially for the application to native elements.

References:
  • Haas, Wim de & Trommelen, Mieke1993Morfologisch handboek van het Nederlands. Een overzicht van de woordvormingSDU Uitgeverij
  • Hoekstra, Jarich1998Fryske wurdfoarmingLjouwertFryske Akademy
  • Veen, Klaas F. van der et al1984-2011Wurdboek fan de Fryske taal - Woordenboek der Friese taalFryske Akademy
  • Visser, Willem2000Frjemd wurdt eigener. Oer de âlde Frânske lienwurden yn it FryskIt Beaken62141-218
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