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-ist
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Niet af!!! -ist (/ɪst/) is a stress-bearing non-native productive cohering suffix found in nouns of common gender denoting male persons, based on words and bound forms of foreign origin.

On semantic grounds, two groups of nouns in -ist can be distinguished: jobs or function names, e.g. journalistjournalist and telefonisttelephone operator, and follower of a certain conviction or movement, e.g. boeddhistBuddhist and staliniststalinist. For the second type of -ist derivations, there usually is a corresponding noun in -ism denoting ideology, movement, etc., e.g. boeddhismeBuddhism, stalinismestalinism.

On formal grounds, three types of derivations can be distinguished, viz. those on nominal bases (e.g. journalist, cf. journaal), those with a bound form as basis (e.g. componistcomposer, cf. componerento compose), and those on adjectival bases (e.g. modernistmodernist).

There is also an unproductive variant -ast, as in cineastcinematographer (a loan) and gymnasiasthigh school student (< gymnasium). Various forms in -ist (and in -ast) are loans.

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-ist (/ɪst/) is a productive suffix found in nouns denoting male persons. Bases are words and bound forms, usually of foreign origin.

On semantic grounds, De Haas and Trommelen (1993: 224) distinguish two groups of nouns in -ist: jobs or function names, e.g. journalistjournalist and telefonisttelephonist, and follower of a certain conviction or movement, e.g. boeddhistBuddhist and staliniststalinist. For the second type of -ist derivations, there usually is a corresponding noun in -isme denoting ideology, movement, etc., e.g. boeddhismeBuddhism, stalinismestalinism.

On formal grounds, they distinguish three types of derivations in -ist, viz. those on nominal bases (e.g. journalist, cf. journaal), those with a bound form as basis (e.g. componistcomposer, cf. componerento compose), and those on adjectival bases (e.g. modernistmodernist).

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Verbal bases do not occur, with one possible exception mentioned by De Haas and Trommelen (1993: 224), viz. typisttypist, which may very well be a loan from English (Etymologiebank).

  • denominal -ist derivations take as their base simplex or complex nouns, usually belonging to the non-native lexical stock. Cases in point are journalistjournalist (cf. journaaljournal), lokettistclerk (cf. loketcounter), parachutistparachutist (cf. parachuteparachute), bloemistflorist (cf. bloemflower), cartoonistcartoonist, fetisjistfetishist, symbolistsymbolist. Proper names, especially foreign ones, are popular as bases as well, e.g. staliniststalinist (< Stalin), leninistleninist (< Lenin), boeddhistBuddhist (< Boeddha), poujadistPoujadist (< Poujade), CarlistCarlist (< Carlos), calvinistCalvinist (< Calvijn). The suffix is very productive in the area of musicians: violistviolinist (cf. vioolviolin), pianistpiano player (cf. pianopiano), saxofonistsaxophone player (cf. saxofoonsaxophone), tenoristtenor (saxophone) player, vocalistvocalist, tubaisttuba player, harpistharp player, klavecinistharpsichord player (cf. klavecimbelharpsichord and Fr. clavecinharpsichord).
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    Nouns like fluitistflutist and (recent) toetsenistkeyboard player are noteworthy in having bases (fluitflute and toetskey) that are not recognisably non-native. Ultimately, however, they derive from French, cf. Etymologiebank here and here. hoornisthorn player may be based on a genuine native stem hoornhorn (Etymologiebank), but given that comparable forms are found in the neighboring languages, borrowing cannot be excluded as a possibiilty; paukenisttimpanist is noteworthy because of the link morpheme -en that may be explainable from the fact that paukentimpani is almost a plurale tantum.

    Native bases are even rarer than they are in English (cf. Bauer et al. (2013: 223) who list forms like duckist, fattist, keyboardist, landscapist, womanist whose Dutch counterparts are all ungrammatical).

    If the base word ends in schwa, this is deleted, as in methodistmethodist (cf. methodemethod). If the base word ends in a full vowel, it is unpredictable whether or not it is deleted (De Haas and Trommelen 1993: 225), cf.:
    Table 1
    no vowel deletion vowel deletion
    dadaistdadaist < DadaDada boeddhistBuddhist < BoeddhaBuddha
    prozaistprose writer < prozaprose spinozistspinozist < SpinozaSpinoza
    egoistegoist < (Lat.) egoI cellistcello player < (violin)celloviolincello
    hoboistoboist < hobooboe solistsoloist < solosolo
    kopiistcopyist < kopiecopy bigamistbigamist < bigamiebigamy
    In stems ending in /-i/, there is usually vowel deletion (marconistwireless operator, cf. Marconi, alchemistalchemist, cf. alchemiealchemy, anarchistanarchist, cf. anar'chieanarchy, kolonistsettler, cf. ko'loniecolony). In several cases where the base is itself derived bij means of the unstressed suffix -ie there is stem allomorphy, e.g. illusionistillusionist (cf. illusieillusion) and perfectionistperfectionist (cf. perfectieperfection). Stem allomorphy also occurs in stems ending in Greek -ma (dogmatistdogmatist, cf. dogmadogma), and in cases like stalinist/sta.li.'nɪst/stalinist (< Stalin/'sta.lɪn/Stalin), calvinist/kɑl.vi.'nɪst/Calvinist (< Calvijn/kɑl.'vɛɪn/Calvin) and afgodist/ɑf.γo.'dɪst/idolator (< afgod/'ɑf.γɔt/idol, demigod).
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    De Haas and Trommelen (1993: 225) analyze -onist in derivations such as illusionistillusionist (cf. illusieillusion) and perfectionist (cf. perfectieperfection) as cases of affix allomorphy rather than stem allomorphy. The fact, however, that the part -on occurs in other types of derivation as well (e.g. perfectionerento (make) perfect) may be taken as an argument in favor of an analysis in terms of stem allomorphy.

    Bauer et al. (2013: 223) note that "[o]f all the agentive suffixes, -ist has the greatest propensity to appear on already derived bases''. This does not hold for Dutch to the same extent:

    Table 1
    ENG NL
    adoptionist < adoption receptionist < receptie
    marriagist < marriage the sequence gist is only found in the loans garagistmechanic and visagistmake-up artist
    movementist < movement Dutch does not seem to have any words in *-mentist
    Africanist < African afrikanist < Afrikaan
    workerist < worker the jocular arbeideristproletarianist (< arbeiderworker) is the only case of -ist after -er; the loans cavaleristcavalry man and toeristtourist are false hits
    accidentalist < accidental fundementalist (< fundamenteel), nationalist (< nationaal)
    historicist < historic ?historicist is extremely rare, historicushistorian is much more common
    objectivist < objective objectivist < objectief
    impossibilist < impossible Dutch does not seem to have any words in *-bilist or *-balist, except for automobilistmotorist
    obscurantist < obscurant *-ntist is very rare, except for obscurantist (probably a loan) and irrelevant orthodontist and Esperantist
    There is also a paradigmatic relation with the verbal suffix -iseer (English -ize), "suggesting a pocket of English derivatives with a paradigmatic flavour" (Bauer et al. 2013: 222).

  • A number of -ist formations has a bound form (roots) as basis, that is, the base does not occur independently, although it is found in other derived words, e.g. componistcomposer (cf. componerento compose), juristlegal expert (cf. juridischlegal), drogistdruggist (< Fr. droguisteseller of medicine and herbs < Du. droogdry, see Etymologiebank), nudistnudist (cf. nudismenudism).
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    Roots (De Belder 2011), non-native derivation

    De Haas and Trommelen (1993: 225) suggest we find affix allomorphy in cases like comparatistcomparatist (-atist) and congreganistcongreganist (-anist), where -atist in turn may be built from -ist and a suffix -at that can never function as a closing suffix (cf. discussion on -ateur in -eur). An analysis in terms of stem allomorphy, finding its roots in intricacies of Romance morphology, therefore seems at least as viable. A comparable explanation is available for forms such as PlatonistPlatonist < Plato: in classical Greek, this name ended in /n/.

  • A smaller number of -ist formations has a (non-native) adjective as base, e.g. modernistmodernist, specialistspecialist, activistactivist. If the base adjectives are formed with the (foreign) suffixes -eel or -air, these change into -aal and -aar, respectively, just as in the case of suffixes like -iteit and -isme.
    Table 3
    adjective -ist formation -isme formation -iteit formation
    rationeelrational rationalistrationalist rationalismerationalism rationaliteitrationality
    functioneelfunctional functionalistfunctionalist functionalismefunctionalism functionaliteitfunctionality
    militairmilitary militaristmilitarist militarismemilitarisme militariteitmilitarity
    These are instances of learned vowel backing (Dell and Selkirk 1978, Booij 1995: 77, cf. suffix allomorphy).
-ast vide Haastrommel gymnasiast pederast fantast cineast

All -ist and -ast formations are of common gender, selecting the singular definite article de.

The suffix -ist and -ast are stress-bearing: stress is on the suffix: modernistmodern-ist/mo.dɛr.'nɪst/ (< modern/mo.'dɛrn/), gymnasiast/γɪm.na.si.'jɑst/highschool student (< gymnasium/γɪm.'na.si.'jøm/highschool). As the phonological representation shows, the suffix is cohering: syllabification does not respect the morphological structure.

morfo: -ist formations have a plural form in -en (journalistenjournalists, telefonistentelephone operators, boeddhistenBuddhists, stalinistenstalinists, componistencomposers, modernistenmodernists). Female counterparts are formed with the suffix -e, e.g. journalistefemale journalist, telefonistefemale telephone operator, boeddhistefemale Buddhist, stalinistefemale stalinist, componistefemale composer, modernistefemale modernist. Diminutives are regularly formed with the suffix allomorph -je (journalistje telefonistje boeddhistje stalinistje) and typically get a depreciatory interpretation. -ist formations can also enter into nominal compounding, both as left-hand parts (terroristenleiderterrorist leader, cursistenbegeleidsterstudents companion, toeristenwinkelstourist shops) (note the linking morpheme-en) and as right-hand head parts (fietsenspecialistbicycle specialist, sportjournalistsports journalist).

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cineast is a loan from French (Etymologiebank). WRONG PLACE

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Booij (2010: 29-33) deals with the relationship between -ist and -ism (the English counterpart of -isme) in order to construct an argument for Construction Morphology:

The need for morphological schemas in a hierarchical lexicon is confirmed by observations concerning 'base-less' complex words. In the non-native layer of its lexicon, English has thousands of complex words in which an affix is recognizable but that do not have a corresponding base word. Here are some examples of such nouns ending in -ism:

anachron-ism, anglic-ism, aut-ism, bapt-ism, bolshev-ism, metabol-ism, pacific-ism

These words are all predictably nouns that denote some abstract phenomenon (ideology, movement, disposition, etc.). Yet, their meaning is not fully predictable because they have no corresponding base words. That is, the corresponding schema that dominates these words is

[x-ism]Ni <-> [phenomenon, ideology, disposition, ...]i

This schema specifies that words of this form are predictably nouns and express one of the semantic categories mentioned; yet their semantics is opaque as far as the meaning of the part before the suffix is concerned. There is a formal base (x), but x has no label for a lexical category, and has therefore no lexical entry of its own. It is a root, only recognizable as part of a complex word. [Pace De Belder, etc.] In this respect such roots are identical to affixes which do not have an independent existence either outside complex words. The same observation, the lack of a base word, holds for many nouns ending in -ist, words like anglic-ist, aut-ist, bapt-ist, bolshev-ist, and pacif-ist, which are both english and Dutch words. They always denote persons involved in something, but that is often the only predictable property (Y is the semantic variable for the specific nature of the ability, ideology, or disposition):

[x-ist]Ni <-> [person with ability, ideology, disposition Y]i

An interesting property of these schemata is that they are output-oriented. Such schemas cannot be formulated as rules, which are by definition input-oriented because there is no input element available in these cases. Thus, these generalizations form an argument in favour of schemas instead of rules [...].

It is not the case that all nouns in -ist have a root as their base. There are also cases in which an existing noun or adjective functions as base word, as shown here for Dutch

Table 4
with N as base
accordeonaccordion accordeon-istaccordionist
alcoholalcohol alcoholistalcoholic
MarxMarx Marx-istMarxist
with A as base
actiefactive activ-istactivist
fundamenteelfundamental fundamental-istfundamentalist
sociaalsocial social-istsocialist
As the glosses show, the same observation holds for English.

This array of facts concerning these nouns in -ist can be accounted for by assuming two subschemas of (10).

Thus it is expressed that the variable x in schema (10) may assume the value of a noun or an adjective, but this is not required, as shown by words like aut-ist. The same hold for schema (9) in which x may also have the value noun or adjective, as in the English words Marxism and socialism respectively. In the case of words in -ist we thus get the following schema:

which expresses that if X is a noun or an adjective, the meaning of the base word plays a role in the meaning of the word in -ist. In some cases the semantic analysis is quite straightforward: an accordionist is a person with the ability to play the accordion, and the word alcoholist denotes a person with the disposition to drink too much alcohol. However, if the noun in -ist denotes a person with a particular disposition or ideology, the semantic description may be more complicated. A socialist, for instance, is not a person who is social or has social abilities but a person who adheres to socialism. Hence, the meaning of the word socialist can only be properly described by referring to the meaning of the corresponding deadjectival noun socialism.

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Paradigmatic relations

The relations of 'ínstantiation' and 'part of' are the two basic types of relationship in the lexicon as far as complex words and their bases are concerned. However, there are more relevant relationships, which are paradigmatic in nature (Koefoed and Van Marle 1980). An important one is that between two sets of words with the same degree of complexity, derived from the same base word.

[...]

[This] type of paradigmatic relationship [...], a correlation between two sets of words of the same degree of morphological complexity, can also be observed in cases where there is no base word that is shared by the word pairs [...]. Consider the following [Dutch] word pairs in -isme and -ist:

Table 5
altru-isme altru-ist
aut-isme aut-ist
bapt-isme bapt-ist
commun-isme commun-ist
pacif-isme pacif-ist
Even though they have no corresponding base word, the meaning of one member of a pair can be defined in terms of that of the other member. In particular, the meaning of the word in -ist can often be paraphrased as person with the ability, disposition, or ideology denoted by the word in -ism.

[...]

The paradigmatic relationship between these two schemas may lead to the coining of new words. For instance, if we know what determinisme is, we can easily coin the word determinist, and then we know that this word denotes a person believing in determinism. The same holds for nouns in -ist with a lexeme as their base, such as Marxist and socialist. A Marxist is an adherent of Marxism and not necessarily a follower of Marx, since Marxism as a doctrine encompasses more than the ideas of Marx (in fact, Marx himself declared that he was not a Marxist. Similarly, a socialist is not necessarily a social person but an adherent of the ideology of socialism.

References:
  • Bauer, Laurie, Lieber, Rochelle & Plag, Ingo2013The Oxford Reference Guide to English MorphologyOxford University Press
  • Bauer, Laurie, Lieber, Rochelle & Plag, Ingo2013The Oxford Reference Guide to English MorphologyOxford University Press
  • Bauer, Laurie, Lieber, Rochelle & Plag, Ingo2013The Oxford Reference Guide to English MorphologyOxford University Press
  • Belder, Marijke de2011Roots and Affixes: Eliminating lexical categories from syntaxUtrechtThesis
  • Booij, Geert1995The phonology of DutchOxfordOxford University Press
  • Booij, Geert2010Construction morphologyOxford/New YorkOxford University Press
  • Dell, François & Selkirk, Elisabeth1978On a morphologically governed vowel alternation in FrenchRecent transformational studies in European languagesCambridge Mass.MITPress1-52
  • Haas, Wim de & Trommelen, Mieke1993Morfologisch handboek van het Nederlands. Een overzicht van de woordvormingSDU Uitgeverij
  • Haas, Wim de & Trommelen, Mieke1993Morfologisch handboek van het Nederlands. Een overzicht van de woordvormingSDU Uitgeverij
  • Haas, Wim de & Trommelen, Mieke1993Morfologisch handboek van het Nederlands. Een overzicht van de woordvormingSDU Uitgeverij
  • Haas, Wim de & Trommelen, Mieke1993Morfologisch handboek van het Nederlands. Een overzicht van de woordvormingSDU Uitgeverij
  • Haas, Wim de & Trommelen, Mieke1993Morfologisch handboek van het Nederlands. Een overzicht van de woordvormingSDU Uitgeverij
  • Koefoed, Geert & Marle, Jaap van1980Over Humboldtiaanse taalveranderingen, morfologie en de creativiteit van taalSpektator10111-147
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