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okker-
quickinfo

The prefix okker- takes time adverbs displaying the ending -s. The prefix forms new adverbs, roughly having the meaning at the moment named in the base form, not so long ago. An example is okkerdeisPREF-day-SUFFthe other day.

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[+] General properties

The prefix okker- takes time adverbs ending in -s to form new adverbs with the meaning at the moment named in the base form, not so long ago. Examples are listed below:


Table 1
Base form Derivation
deiday okkerdeisthe other day
moarnmorning okkermoarnson a recent morning
moandeiMonday okkermoandeison a recent Monday
middeiafternoon okkermiddeison a recent afternoon
sneontejûnSaturday evening okkersneontejûnson a recent Saturday evening
wikeweek okkerwyksthe other week
hjerstmisin the autumn okkerhjerstmisin a recent autumn
jieryear okkerjiersin a recent year
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A synonymous compound

Derivations with okker- share their semantics with compounds of the adverb lêstenrecently and a time adverb ending in -s. An example is lêstenmoarnson a recent morning (< moarnmorning). The only difference is that compositions with lêsten denote moments which date slightly less far back in time than derivations with okker-. Therefore, it is not possible to attach lêsten to a noun like jieryear, because a year is apparently too long ago. Hence, okkerjiersin a recent year is possible, but *lêstenjiers is not. The derivation okkerlêstenrecently is a remarkable tautological expression in the light of these semantic similarities.

[+] Semantic relation to the base

As can be seen in the table, okker- only attaches to adverbs derived with -s. This suffix is used to form time adverbials on the basis of nouns that denote a duration. The suffix -s can attach to continuous durations like wikeweek and to discontinuous ones, like jûnevening. Suffixation with -s has a different effect, i.e. invoking a distributional or a categorial interpretation, respectively. These different interpretations are skipped, however, by subsequent prefixation by okker-. The effect of okker- in okkerwyksa few weeks ago and okkerjûnson a recent evening is basically the same. The prefix thus treats the time adverbials as one class.

[+] Phonological properties

The prefix is pronounced as [okər], but there is also a less frequent variant [hokər]. More examples of such variation can be found in the topic on the glottal fricative /h/. Nowadays, okker- is preferred in the orthography.

The stress in the derivations is not on the prefix, but on the base form, i.e. okkerDEISthe other day.

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Literature

This topic is based on Hoekstra (1989:16-18) and on Hoekstra (1998:157-159). The parallel with lêsten is also mentioned in Tamminga (1963:17-18).

References:
  • Hoekstra, Jarich1989Bywurden fan tiid op -sTydskrift foar Fryske Taalkunde51-32
  • Hoekstra, Jarich1998Fryske wurdfoarmingLjouwertFryske Akademy
  • Tamminga, Douwe Annes1963Op 'e taelhelling. Losse trochsneden fan Frysk taellibben. IBoalsertA.J. Osinga
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