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-erd
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-erd[ərt] is a non-stress-bearing, cohering Germanic suffix that creates nouns of common gender referring to persons or things. Inputs are adjectives (productive) or verbs (unproductive).

Schema 1:
[[A]erd](N)

Meaning:
someone having the property denoted by A

Schema 2:
[[V]erd](N)

Meaning:
someone engaged in the activity denoted by V


Table 1
derivation base
dikkerdbig fellow, fatso < dikfat (A)
slimmerdslyboots, smartass < slimsmart (A)
lieverdsweety < liefsweet (A)
stinkerdstinker, skunk < stinkstink (V)
praterdtalkative type < praattalk (V)
pakkerdkiss < paktake (V)
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[+] Morphosyntactic properties

-erd[ərt] creates nouns of common gender on the basis of adjectives (productive) or verbs (unproductive) (De Haas and Trommelen 1993). -erd is considered to be the unstressed counterpart of –aard (which explains the spelling with final <d>), but it has its own properties. It usually creates nouns of common gender referring to persons or things (cf. discussion of other possible –erd formations below). The suffix determines the part of speech (the output word is a noun) as well as its gender, which is common. Therefore, nouns ending in –erd take the singular definite article de.

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Historically, the person-denoting suffix -erd is a reduced form of -aard, which itself is probably a loan from French http://gtb.inl.nl/iWDB/search?actie=article&wdb=WNT&id=M001117&lemmodern=-aard). Over time, the two variants developed their own distribution and other properties. In informal spoken Dutch, especially from western parts of the Netherlands, many nouns in -er may get an extra <d> or <t>: brommerdmoped (dictionary formbrommer), scheidsrechtertreferee, speechertsomeone who delivers a speech, computerdcomputer; this effect can even be seen in names, e.g., Casper may become Caspert. The official spelling –erd with <d> is based on its historical relation with the suffix –aard, but independent synchronic evidence (such as derived words or plural forms of these words in -en) for an underlying phonological /d/ appears to be lacking. In a Google search (06/25/2015) brommert and scheidsrechtert (with <t>) outnumbered brommerd and scheidsrechterd, respectively.

[+] Semantics

The general meaning of deadjectival –erd formations can be described as ‘someone having the property denoted by A’, that of deverbal ones as ‘someone engaged in the activity denoted by V’. However, –erd derivations often have an idiosyncratic meaning, especially deverbal ones: a stinkerd (< stinkto stink) is not just a stinkpot or ‘skunk’ but also a ‘farter’ and can also be used as an invective as in vuile stinkerdfilthy bastard; a pakkerd (< pakkento take) is a ‘kiss, hug’, and poeperd (< poepento poop) means either ‘bottom, behind’ or ‘sweety’.

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According to ANS(Haeseryn et al. 1997), derivations with -aard or -erd usually have an unfavorable meaning. WNT treats poeper and poeperd in one lemma, but for many native speakers the meanings of these formations are different, the first one denoting someone who has a shit, the second one behind or sweety. De Vries (1920-1921 [1971: 1987]) discusses minimal pairs such as schreeuwersomeone who screams vs. schreeuwertsomeone who has the bad habit of screaming.

The fixed combination rijke stinkerdrich stinkersomeone who is filthy rich allegedly derives from the time when only the rich could afford it to be burried in church, where their remains might be spreading odors of decomposition. The viability of this etymology is not accepted by everyone.

[+] Inflectional properties

Plurals of -erd formations are in –s: dikkerdsbig fellows, pakkerdskisses.

[+] Phonological input restrictions

-erd combines productively with Germanic adjectives that are either monosyllabic (dikkerdfatso, slimmerdwise customer) or bisyllabic with schwa in the second syllable (goochemerd < goochemsmart), or derived by means of the suffix –lijk (lelijkerd < lelijkugly, fatsoenlijkerd < fatsoenlijkdecent), to form person-denoting nouns.

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Attested precieserd (< preciesprecise, bisyllabic with a vowel in the last syllable that is not schwa) is an exception to these phonological input restrictions. Apparently, -ig formations are a productive base for -erd formations: a Google search yielded forms like gezelligerdsociable type (< gezelligsociable, cosy), zuinigerd (< zuinigthrifty), gierigerdmiser (< gierigstingy) and verstandigerdwise person (<verstandigwise, reasonable).

Deverbal –erd formations (not productive) are usually from monosyllabic Germanic stems: stinkerdsomeone who stinks, pakkerdkiss, poeperdanus, sweety (< poepto defecate, to shit).

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The etymology and morphological make-up of kokkerdbig thing, esp. big nose (also found as kokker and kokkert) are unclear

The base for an -erd derivation, either verb or adjective, may not end in /r/ (cf. the general restriction on [rər] syllables): forms like *stoererd (< stoersturdy, stout) and *zeurerd (< zeurento whine) are not attested and impossible. A solution is to insert a /d/, e.g. gluurderdvoyeur, peeping Tom (< gluurto peek), stoerderdsturdy person and zeurderdmoaner, bore.

[+] Competition

For the formation of de-adjectival nouns, the suffix -erd competes with -aard (on the basis of valsmean, out of tune we find both valserd and valsaard) as well as with -e. For the formation of deverbal nouns, the suffix -erd competes with -er.

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The exact distribution of -aard and -erd is unknown. According to the ANS, -erd is productive in the Northern standard language, but not in Belgium, where -aard is more productive. De-adjectival -erd formations are rare in Belgium (and perhaps in other parts of the South (Michiel de Vaan, Crit Cremers p.c.), but dikkerd occurs in the Belgian part of CGN.

[+] Phonological properties

-erd does not bear stress, its only vowel being schwa, nor does it change the stress pattern of the stem it attaches to. -erd is a cohering suffix: syllabification does not respect the morphological boundary: stinkerdstink-erd/stɪŋ-kərt/. Intervocalic lenition of stem-final /d/ is visible in goeierd (< goedgood) and rooierd (< roodred).

[+] Morphological potential

Diminutives of -erd formations are quite common, often with a more or less affectionate reading (as is often the case with Dutch diminutives): dikkerdjesweet little fatso, lieverdjesweety, zeikerdjesweet little bore (< zeikento piss). There is no regular explicitly marked female counterpart for –erd formations; the forms can be used to refer to males and females alike. We did not find any –erd formations as the left-hand part of a compound in the CGN lexicon. Nouns in –erd cannot be converted into verbs. -erd formations with a pejorative meaning can be intensified with the prefix aarts- (just like other negative person denoting nouns, e.g. aartsschurkarrant knave, arch-villain): aartslelijkerdvery ugly person is fine (though rare), but formations like *aartsleukerdvery nice guy could not be found via Google (06/25/2014).

References:
  • Haas, Wim de & Trommelen, Mieke1993Morfologisch handboek van het Nederlands. Een overzicht van de woordvormingSDU Uitgeverij
  • Haeseryn, Walter, Romijn, Kirsten, Geerts, Guido, Rooij, Jaap de & Toorn, Maarten C. van den1997Algemene Nederlandse spraakkunstGroningenNijhoff
  • Vries, Wobbe de1920-1921 [1971]Iets over woordvormingThieme
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