• Dutch
  • Frisian
  • Afrikaans
Show full table of contents
The bridge complement is realised as a Verb-Second clause
quickinfo

The Verb-Second clause is a very common clause type, generally speaking, also with bridge verbs. Spoken language features more Verb-Second clauses than written language does. Verb-Second clauses are strongly associated with main clauses: they are natural units of discourses.

readmore

The complement to a bridge verb may be realised as a Verb-Second clause (V2) featuring indirect speech:

Example 1

Pier sei syn swurd wie ruostich
Pier said his sword was rusty
Pier said his sword was rusty

The complement to a bridge verb may be realised as a Verb-Second clause featuring direct speech:

Example 2

Pier sei myn swurd is ruostich
Pier said my sword is rusty
Pier said, my sword is rusty

V2 clauses may be introduced by a complementiser in case they function as the complement to a bridge verb. Such clauses are referred to as CV2. The following example illustrates this for indirect speech:

Example 3

Pier sei dat syn swurd wie ruostich
Pier said that his sword was rusty
Pier said that his sword was rusty

CV2s cannot be used for direct speech, as shown by the ungrammaticality in the example below:

Example 4

*Pier sei dat myn swurd is ruostich
Pier said that my sword is rusty
Pier said, my sword is rusty

Verb-Second clauses are regularly used in Frisian for indirect speech, even in written language, where Dutch would have a finite or non-finite Verb-Final clause. An example of V2 indirect speech is given below:

Example 5

Om't Herre goed leare koe, wie it doel, hy soe mar dûmny wurde
because Herre well study could was the aim he should DcP priest become
As Herre was a quick learner, they intended for him to become a priest

The complement V2 clause shows the past tense of the verb silleshall, which is characteristic of irrealis and subjunctive contexts.

References:
    Suggestions for further reading ▼
    phonology
    • Dutch
    • Frisian
    • Afrikaans
    Show more ▼
    morphology
    • Dutch
    • Frisian
    • Afrikaans
    • General categories
      [62%] Frisian > Morphology > Inflection > Verbs
    • Derivation
      [61%] Frisian > Morphology > Word formation
    • -jei
      [61%] Frisian > Morphology > Word formation > Derivation > Suffixation > Verbal suffixes > Noun as base
    • -ig
      [61%] Frisian > Morphology > Word formation > Derivation > Suffixation > Verbal suffixes > Noun as base
    • Cardinal numbers
      [60%] Frisian > Morphology > Inflection > Numerals
    Show more ▼
    syntax
    • Dutch
    • Frisian
    • Afrikaans
    • 2.3.3. Differences between clausal complements and relative clauses
      [66%] Dutch > Syntax > Nouns and Noun Phrases > 2 Projection of noun phrases I: complementation > 2.3. Clausal complements
    • 2.3.1. Finite clauses
      [65%] Dutch > Syntax > Nouns and Noun Phrases > 2 Projection of noun phrases I: complementation > 2.3. Clausal complements
    • 5.1.1. General introduction
      [64%] Dutch > Syntax > Verbs and Verb Phrases > 5 Projection of verb phrases IIIb:Argument and complementive clauses > 5.1. Finite argument clauses
    • 5.1.2.4. Reported speech
      [64%] Dutch > Syntax > Verbs and Verb Phrases > 5 Projection of verb phrases IIIb:Argument and complementive clauses > 5.1. Finite argument clauses > 5.1.2. Direct object clauses
    • Introduction
      [63%] Dutch > Syntax > Verbs and Verb Phrases
    Show more ▼
    cite
    print