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The two tenses of the irrealis
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The present tense is used in conditional clauses for hypothetical situations which are possible and not improbable. The simple past tense is used in conditional clauses for hypothetical situations which are possible but improbable. (see simple present and simple past). The perfect tense is used for the expression of counterfactuals. Frisian appears to have two ways of morphologically expressing the semantics of the tenses of the irrealis: by means of the past tense or by means of the modal auxiliary silleshall (see present perfect and past perfect). These two ways may be combined in the bi-clausal conditional construction. Corpus research is necessary to check and refine the claims made here.

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More details about the two tenses of the irrealis can be found by following the corresponding links:

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    phonology
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    morphology
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    syntax
    • Dutch
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    • 1.5.1. Tense
      [77%] Dutch > Syntax > Verbs and Verb Phrases > 1 Characterization and classification > 1.5. Tense, epistemic modality and aspect
    • 1.5.4.1. The uses of the simple tenses
      [75%] Dutch > Syntax > Verbs and Verb Phrases > 1 Characterization and classification > 1.5. Tense, epistemic modality and aspect > 1.5.4. The Dutch verbal tense system
    • 1.5.4.2. The uses of the perfect tenses
      [75%] Dutch > Syntax > Verbs and Verb Phrases > 1 Characterization and classification > 1.5. Tense, epistemic modality and aspect > 1.5.4. The Dutch verbal tense system
    • 1.3. Inflection
      [74%] Dutch > Syntax > Verbs and Verb Phrases > 1 Characterization and classification
    • 3.3.1. Adpositional phrases
      [74%] Dutch > Syntax > Nouns and Noun Phrases > 3 Projection of noun phrases II: modification > 3.3. Postmodification
    • Tense
      [76%] Afrikaans > Syntax > Verbs and Verb Phrases > 1. Characterization and classification > 1.5. Tense, modality and aspect
    • Mood
      [75%] Afrikaans > Syntax > Verbs and Verb Phrases > 1. Characterization and classification
    • Epistemic usage
      [73%] Afrikaans > Syntax > Verbs and Verb Phrases > 1. Characterization and classification > 1.5. Tense, modality and aspect > 1.5.2. Modality
    • Binominal constructions: (Proper) Name constructions
      [72%] Afrikaans > Syntax > Nouns and Noun Phrases > 2. Binominal Constructions
    • Finite interrogative complement clauses: syntactic distribution
      [72%] Afrikaans > Syntax > Verbs and Verb Phrases > 5. Complement Clauses > 5.2. Finite interrogative complement clauses
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