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The source of fake geminates
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This section gives an overview of how inflection and derivation, compounding, the ordering of words in syntax, and assimilatory processes may yield the juxtaposition of two identical consonants, which results in fake geminates.

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[+] General information and examples

Inflection and derivation, compounding, the ordering of words in syntax, and assimilatory processes may yield the juxtaposition of two identical consonants, which results in fake geminates. Examples of word-internal fake geminates resulting from inflection and derivation are given in (1):

Example 1

Examples of word-internal fake geminates, resulting from inflection and derivation
a. Resulting from inflection
(hy) lit /lɪt+t/ (he) lets
(do) past /pɔs+st/ (you) try on
(hy) wjudde /vjød+də/ (he) weeded
(hy) wrotte /vrot+tə/ (he) plodded, slaved (away)
(hy hat) wrot /vrot+t/ (he has) plodded, slaved (away)
(it) dwerst /dwɛs+st/ most transverse; most crossgrained
b. Resulting from derivation
smoutte /smɔwt+tə/ lee, shelter
katsje /kɔt+tsjə/ kitten; catkin
ferrinne /fər+rɪnə/ to (e)lapse
ûnnut /un+nøt/ useless
ûnttize /unt+ti:zə/ to disentangle, to unravel

Examples of fake geminates in compound-like structures and in true compounds are given in (2):

Example 2

Examples of fake geminates in compound-like structures and in true compounds
a. In compound-like structures
willeas /vɪl+lɪ.əz/ weak-willed
misset /mɪs+sɛt/ slip
b. In particle verbs
dellizze /dɛl+lɪzə/ to lay down
foarroppe /foər+ropə/ to summon
ynnûgje /in+nu:ɣjə/ to invite (to come) in
oannimme /oən+nɪmə/ to accept; to assume
oerrinne /uər+rɪnə/ to overflow
ommalkje /om+mɔlkjə/ to change all the time (of the wind)
úttinje /yt+tɪnjə/ to thin (out)
c. In compounds
fjoerread /fjuər#rɪəd/ crimson
smoarryk /smoər#rik/ (extremely) wealthy
spierrjocht /spiər#rjoxt/ dead straight
bûssint /bus#sɪnt/ pocket money
fallûk /fɔl#luk/ trapdoor
jierrekken /jiər#rɛkən/ annual report
nachttút /naxt#tyt/ good-night kiss
noassnute /noəs#snytə/ to blow one's nose
sipellucht /sipəl#løxt/ smell of onions
skierroek /skiər#ruk/ hooded crow
slieppil /sliəp#pɪl/ sleeping pill
spekkeaper /spɛk#kɪəpər/ one who is not short in money
tinkkrêft /tɪŋk#krɛ:ft/ mental power, power of thought
waskkoer /vɔsk#kuər/ (dirty) clothes basket
winkellju /vɪŋkəl#ljø/ shopkeepers

Examples of fake geminates due to words meeting in syntax are given in (3):

Example 3

Examples of fake geminates arising in syntax
syn nûmer /sin numər/ his number
hy hie de faam mei /fa:m maj/ he was there together with his girlfriend
it wurdt sa allegear wol let /vol lɛt/ things are getting quite late this way
mei sa'n wyn wol de boat raar rôlje /ra:r rɔ:ljə/ with so much wind the ship is prone to roll heavily
in nij pak klean /pak klɪən/ a new suit
omdat se altyd sa rap praat /rap pra:t/ because she always talks so rapidly
moatst it sels sjen /sɛls sjɛn/ you have to see it yourself

Adjacent consonants which differ in underlying representation may become identical as a result of phonological processes. These processes thus feed degemination. A case in point is final devoicing, examples of which are given in the following table:


Table 1: Sequences of identical consonants as a result of Final Devoicing
In compounds In phrases
sleeffol/sle:v#fol//sle:ffol/ladlefull goed timmere/-d t-//-t t-/well built
lûdticht/lu:d#tɪxt//lu:ttɪxt/soundproof geef Frysk/-v f-//-f f-/good Frisian
wrâldtaal/vrɔ:d#ta:l//vrɔ:tta:l/world language seis sinten/-z s-//-s s-/six cents
reidtûfe/rajd#tufə//rajttufə/reed tuft de nije slaab passe/-b p-//-p p-/to try on the new bib
reisselskip/rajz#sɛlskɪp//rajssɛlskɪp/touring group
priissjonge/pri:z#sjoŋə//pri:ssjoŋə/take part in a singing competition
tsiisskaaf/tsi:z#skaaf//tsi:sska:f/cheese slicer
turfflok/tørv#flɔk//tørfflɔk/fibrous part of peat

As is to be expected, assimilatory processes (see assimilation) are another important source of sequences of identical consonants; examples are given in the following section.

[+] Sequences of identical consonants as a result of assimilatory processes

Table 2: Obstruent adaptation
Obstruent adaptation in inflected and derived forms
(hja) riidt/ri:d+t//ri:tt/(she) drives
(hy) hâldt oan/hɔ:d+t//hɔ:tt/(he) holds on to
(do) raast/ra:z+st//ra:sst/(you) rage, rave
(it) kreast/krɪəz+st//krɪəsst/most good-looking
wurdsje/vød+tsjə//vøttsjə/(little) word

Table 3: Regressive Voice Assimilation
Regressive Voice Assimilation in particle verbs
opbine/op+binə//obbinə/to tie up
opblaze/op+bla:zə//obbla:zə/to blow up
útdiele/yt+diələ//yddiələ/to hand out
fuortdrave/fwot+dravə//fwoddra:və/to run away

Table 4
Regressive Voice Assimilation in compounds and compound-like structures
stjonkgat/stjoŋk#ɡɔt//stjoŋɡɡɔt/hole which stinks
wrakguod/vrak#ɡwod//vraɡɡwot/rickety pottery
wipbrêge/vɪp#brɛ:ɣə//vɪbbrɛ:ɣə/lift bridge
sleepboat/sle:p#boət//sle:bboət/tugboat
slútdaam/slyt#da:m//slydda:m/dam
skutdoar/skøt#doər//skøddoər/lock gate
raspboerd/rɔsp#buəd//rɔzbbuət/board used for a certain game
rêstdei/rɛ:st#daj//rɛ:zddaj/rest day
waskguod/vɔsk#ɡwod//vɔzɡɡwod/wash, laundry
ûntdekke/unt#dɛkə//unddɛkə/to discover

Table 5
Regressive Voice Assimilation in phrases
it sop behimmelje/-p b-//-b b-/eat the soup
de wisp baarnt/-p b-//-b b-/the torch is burning
net dwaan!/-t d-//-d d-/do not (do that)
in test dwaan/-t d-//-d d-/do a test
in tekst dwaan/-t d-//-d d-/deal with a text
oer in taak gear/-k ɡ-//-ɡ ɡ-/doing a task
oer de fisk gear/-k ɡ-//-ɡ ɡ-/prepare the fish

Table 6: Regressive Place Assimilation
Regressive Place Assimilation in particle verbs
ynmealle/in#mjɛlə//immjɛlə/to pump water from outside into the polder
oanmoanje/oən#mwanjə//oəmmwanjə/to urge

Table 7
Regressive Place Assimilation in compounds and compound-like structures
wynmole/vin#mo:lə//vimmo:lə/windmill
wynmoanne/vin#mwanə//vimmwanə/October (lit. 'wine month')
ûnmacht/un#maxt//ummaxt/powerlessness

Table 8
Regressive Place Assimilation in phrases
hja naam wyn mei/-n m-//-m m-/she brought along wine
doch har sin mar/-n m-//-m m-/just do as she wishes
hy hâldt fan muzyk/-n m-//-m m-/he likes music

Table 9: Progressive Voice Assimilation
Progressive Voice Assimilation
omdat de trein in oere fertraging hie/-t d-//-t t-/because the train had a delay of an hour
wannear't der praat wurdt/-t d-//-t t-/when people talk (about it)
witst wol wat dat wurd betsjut?/-t d-//-t t-/do you know what that word means?
it praat dat er altyd hat/-t d-//-t t-/the things he always talks about
ik wit net wat dy mannen besielet/-t d-//-t t-/I do not know what has come over those men
hiest do dat wier net sjoen?/-t d-//-t t-/had not you really seen that?
hoe komt dit no wer?/-t d-//-t t-/how on earth díd this happen?
dat stiet dêr al jierren/-t d-//-t t-/that has stood there for years
hy leit dus alle funksjes del/-t d-//-t t-/so he resigns all his offices
hy rint dan alles om sa'n boek ôf/-t d-//-t t-/he then searches high and low in order to find such a book
wêrom hat er dat doe net sein?/-t d-//-t t-/why didn't he say that then?

Table 10: Exceptional cases of assimilation
Exceptional cases of assimilation
treppot[trɛpɔt] < trekpot/trɛk#pɔt/teapot
fiif menuten[fimənytn] < /fiim mənytən/ < /fi:v menytən/five minutes (used as a unit of time)
[hide extra information]
x

Frisian does not have double consonants. Fake geminates therefore can only consist of consonants which can occur in both the syllable coda and the syllable onset. Since /ŋ/ (see the dorsal nasal /ŋ/) and /x/ (see the dorsal obstruents) only occur in the coda and /h/ (see the glottal fricative /h/) and /ɡ/ (see the dorsal obstruents) only occur in the onset, they do not figure in fake geminates. The latter, however, may occur with [ɡ], as a result of Regressive Voice Assimilation (see regressive voice assimilation: type 1), examples of which are stjonkgat/stjoŋk#ɡɔt//stjoŋɡɡɔt/hole which stinks, wrakguod/vrak#ɡwod//vraɡɡwot/rickety pottery, oer in taak gear/-k ɡ-//-ɡ ɡ-/doing a task, and oer de fisk gear/-k ɡ-//-ɡ ɡ-/prepare the fish.

/ŋ/ and /x/ may be realized as ambisyllabic, as in angel/aŋəl/[(aŋ)(ŋəl)]fishin rod, fishing pole and richel/rɪxəl/[(rɪx)(xəl)]ledge; lath, in which they occur in both the coda and the onset. Their occurrence in the onset here is licensed by the link with the coda.

References:
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