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-el
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The suffix -el can derive verbs from other verbs. The derived verbs denote a repetition of the action of the base form, for example: kocheto cough > kocheljeto cough constantly, hinkjeto limp > hinkeljeto hop. In a few cases, the suffix can be involved in stacking with the likewise frequentative suffix -k. An example is driuw-k-el-jeto float slowly from driuweto float, although an alternative analysis is also available.

Other verbal suffixes with an iterative or frequentative function are -er and -k.

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[+] General properties

The suffix -el derives verbs from other verbs, denoting a repetition of the action of the base form. The base form often has an iterative or frequentative function already, so the derivation only serves as a reinforcement of this function. Examples are given in the table below:

Table 1
Base form Derivation
biddeto pray biddeljeto beg for
wjukjeto wing wjukkeljeto flutter
hippeto hop hippeljeto hop
gnibjeto nibble gnibbeljeto nibble on
rideto drive rideljeto tremble
wippeto hop wippeljeto wobble
weveto weave weveljeto sway
stoarteto crash stoarteljeto stumble
rûzeto make a noise rûzeljeto rustle
ferwoastjeto destroy ferwoasteljeto destroy
It is questionable whether one can always speak of synchronic derivations in these cases. The relation between derivation and base form is opaque anyhow in kwatteto spit > kwatteljeto scribble and skoweto slide > skoffeljeto shuffle.

It should be noted that most base verbs inflect according the weak verbs of class I. After suffixation, they switch to class II (for verbal inflection, see weak verbs.

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x Another suffix -el

There is another suffix -el that derives adjectives from verbs.

[+] Relation to the suffix -er

Next to the suffix -el[əl] is a comparable suffix -er, which can also derive verbs from other verbs. There is no clear rule for the choice between the use of -er or -el. One could say that verbs of which the base form ends in /r/ get the suffix -el (for example soarjeto simmer > soarreljeto keep something simmering) and that verbs of which the base form ends in /l/ get the suffix -er (for example op-en-deljeto go up and down > op-en-delderjeto screw). Base forms ending in a different consonant do not have such a clear rule, however.

Sometimes, the forms with -el and -er are interchangeable:


Table 2
Base form Derivation
sypjeto seep sipelje / siperjeto seep through
knûkjeto get creased knûkelje / knûkerjeto crease
stuitsjeto be stopped stuitelje / stuiterjeto stumble
kipeto topple over kipelje / kiperjeto topple
[+] Stacking

The suffix -k likewise indicates iterativity. The suffixes -k and -el can be stacked, in that order, although this phenomenon is quite rare. The only cases are far-k-el-jeto go boating (from farreto sail) and driuw-k-el-jeto float slowly from driuweto float. In addition, we have trip-k-el-jeto trip, next to the forms tripkje and trippelje with the same meaning (but the base form trippe is extremely rare).

An alternative analysis could be to derive these "double" forms from derivations with the suffix -k. For example, we would then get the development farre > far-k-je > far-k-el-je. In this way, the assumption of stacking is not necessary.

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x Literature

This topic is mainly based on Hoekstra (1998:142).

References:
  • Hoekstra, Jarich1998Fryske wurdfoarmingLjouwertFryske Akademy
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