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Extraction from postpositional phrases embedded in postpositional phrases

Complex postpositional phrases normally allow extraction of the complement embedded in them. This is shown for Adposition Phrases (PPs) involving the postpositions: útout and út weiout away.


The following examples show that extraction may also take place from complex postpositional phrases, that is, from a postpositional phrase selecting a postpositional phrase:

Example 1

a. [Alle kanten] wiene se út wei kommen
all sides were they out away come
They had come from all directions
b. Hokker kant komme de snippen út wei?
which side come the snipes out away
From which direction do the snipes come?

The following example illustrates that the adverb weragain may intervene between the Noun Phrase (NP) and the most deeply embedded postposition út, of which the NP is a complement. This is shown in the example below.

Example 2

De melkerskarren komme [de mieden] wer út wei
the milk.carts come the meadowns again out away
The milk carts are coming out of the meadows again

The preposition fanof, from occasionally pops up in the complement of the lowest postposition, as in the following sentence:

Example 3

a. Wa wit wiene de Friezen besibbe oan 'e Ingelsen út 'e Midlands, fanwegen de drokke skipfeart op Hull en Harwich [fan Harns] út wei
who knows were the Frisian related to the Englishmen from The Midlands because.of the busy ship.traffic to Hull and Harwich from Harns out away
Who knows, the Frisians might be related to the Englishmen from The Midlands, because of the intense shipping trade to Hull and Harwich from Harns
b. Doe dreau ús / [fan it súd] út wei / in yskokarre temjitte
then floated us from the south out away an ice-cream.vendor towards
Then an ice-cream vendor floated towards us from the south

The postpositional phrase as a whole can be questioned, regardless of whether the preposition is present or not:

Example 4

(Fan) hokker kant út wei kaam de stoarm?
(from) which side out away came the storm
From which direction did the storm come?

Note that subextraction crucially depends on selection. No subextraction is possible from a PP that is not selected:

Example 5

a. *Hokker kant koe hja him net út wei oankommen sjen?
which way could she him not out away come see
From which direction could she not see him coming?
b. Hja koe him dy kant út wei net oankommen sjen
she could him that way out away not come see
She could not see him coming from that direction

In these examples, the PP functions as an adverbial.

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